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electronegativity

electronegativity - e = 1.60 x 10-19 C o r = distance...

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electronegativity  - ability of atom in a molecule to attract electrons used to see if bond will be nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, or ionic bond polarity - describes sharing of electrons between atoms o nonpolar covalent bond - electrons shared equally (electronegativities equal) o polar covalent bond - 1 atom attracts bonding electrons more than the other o ionic bond forms when difference in electronegativity > 3 based on ionization energy, electron affinity fluorine - most electronegative cesium - least electronegative in molecules, electron density (and negative charge) shift towards more electronegative atom dipole moment  - measure of dipole’s magnitude dipole - formed when electrical charges of opposite sign, equal magnitude separated by distance m = Qr o m = dipole moment o Q = electronic charge (unit
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Unformatted text preview: e = 1.60 x 10-19 C) o r = distance separating 2 atoms • debyes (D) - unit equal to 3.34 x 10-30 coulomb-meters (C-m) Calculate the dipole moment of HCl if the H and Cl are separated by 1.27Å • Q = 1 e = 1.60 x 10-19 C • r = 1.27Å • m = (1.60 x 10-19 C)(1.27Å)(10-10m/1.00Å)(1D/3.34 x 10-30 C-m) • m = 6.08 D In units of e , what is the charge on the atoms of a compound if they're separated by 2.74Å and have a measured dipole moment of 1.97 D? • Q = m/r • m = 1.97D = (1.97D)(3.34 x 10-30 C-m / D) = 6.5798 x 10-30 C-m • r = 2.74Å = (2.74Å)(10-10m/1.00Å) = 2.74 x 10-10m • Q = m/r = (6.5798 x 10-30 C-m) / (2.74 x 10-10m) = 2.40 x 10-20 C • (2.40 x 10-20 C)(1 e / 1.60 x 10-19 C) = 0.150 e...
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