ionization

ionization - electron affinity - energy change when...

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ionization energy  - measures amount of energy needed to lose an electron   more difficult to remove electrons w/ greater ionization energy more energy needed to remove each subsequent electron sharp increase in ionization energy needed to remove inner shell electrons o inner shell electrons much closer to nucleus I1 generally increases w/ atomic number on each row I1 decreases as atomic number increases down a group representative elements have larger range of I1 than transition elements smaller atoms tend to have higher ionization energies (electrons closer to nucleus) ion electron configurations  - electrons removed from largest available quantum number first   electrons added to lowest available quantum number first
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Unformatted text preview: electron affinity - energy change when electron is added to a gaseous atom measures attraction of atom for added electron usually negative (energy usually released when electron is added), but can be positive for noble gases (anion higher in energy than separated atom/electron) halogens have the most negative electron affinities noble gases have positive electron affinities (when adding an electron would place it on a new energy subshell) group 5A (w/ 1/2 filled subshells) have electron affinities either positive or less negative than group 4A doesn't change much going up/down a group...
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This document was uploaded on 10/30/2011 for the course CHEM 161 at Rutgers.

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