solutionformula - • solute can change or remain unchanged...

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solution process  - like molecules dissolve like molecules ionic compounds dissolved in polar solvent (w/ ion-dipole forces) covalent compounds dissolved in nonpolar solvent (w/ dispersion forces) forces between solvent/solute must be greater than forces between solute molecules solvation - dissolving solute w/ solvent (solvent molecules completely surround solute) o hydration - solvation when solvent is water Hsoln = H1 + H2 + H3 o H1 = separation of solute molecules (endothermic) o H2 = separation of solvent molecules (endothermic) o H3 = forming solvent-solute interactions (exothermic) o Hsoln can be either exothermic/endothermic no solution if too endothermic, spontaneous reaction if exothermic spontaneous solution formation  - usually exothermic energy decrease >> reaction starts spontaneously entropy/disorder increase >> reaction starts spontaneously (even if endothermic) molecules unrestrained >> spontaneous mixing occurs no solution of solute-solute or solvent-solvent forces greater than solvent-solute forces
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Unformatted text preview: • solute can change or remain unchanged after solvation crystallization - opposite of solvation • saturated solution- will not dissolve more solute if added • solubility- amount of solute needed to form saturated solution • unsaturated solution- dissolves less solute than in saturated solution • supersaturated solution- contains more solute than needed for saturation o possible at different temperatures o very unstable, will crystallize w/ just a little bit of added solute solute-solvent interactions - determines tendency of substances to mix • stronger solute-solvent interaction >> greater solubility • polar liquids dissolve polar solutes, don’t dissolve nonpolar solutes • miscible- describes substances that dissolve in each other • immiscible- describes substances that don’t dissolve in each other • increase # of polar groups >> increase solubility in water...
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This document was uploaded on 10/30/2011 for the course CHEM 161 at Rutgers.

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