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valencebondtheory - • energy released by bond...

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bond polarity  - measure of electron sharing overall dipole = sum of bond dipoles o dipoles have magnitude/direction o consider shape to find overall polarity nonpolar molecule - overall dipole moment of 0 o bond dipoles cancel each other out polar molecule - nonzero overall dipole moment o when molecule not the same all around valence-bond theory  - explains covalent bonding orbitals overlap to form covalent bonds optimum distance between bonded nuclei bond length - distance where attractive forces (between electrons/nuclei) are balanced by repulsive forces (between electrons/electrons, nuclei/nuclei) hybrid orbitals  - new orbitals formed by a mix of other orbitals hybridization - process of mixing/changing atomic orbitals
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Unformatted text preview: • energy released by bond formation > energy needed to promote electrons to higher levels • sp hybrid orbital- 1 electron from s subshell promoted to p subshell o able to form 2 bonds o forms linear arrangement • sp2 hybrid orbital- 1 electron from s subshell promoted to p subshell o 1 electron in s subshell, 2 electrons in p subshell o forms trigonal planar arrangement • sp3 hybrid orbital- 1 electron from s subhsell promoted to fill p subshell o forms tetrahedral arrangement • hybridization w/ d orbitals- possible w/ atoms in 3 rd period and beyond o sp3d hybrid orbital- trigonal bipyramidal arrangement o sp3d2hybrid orbital- octahedron arrangement...
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