ColdWar - IX.TheUnitedStatesandtheSovietUnion I. With the...

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IX. The United States and the Soviet Union I. With the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. as the only world superpowers after WWII, trouble seemed imminent, for the U.S. had waited until 1933, to recognize the U.S.S.R.; the U.S. and Britain had delayed to open up a second front during World War II; the U.S. and Britain had frozen the Soviets out of developing nuclear arms; and the U.S. had withdrawn its vital lend-lease program from the U.S.S.R. in 1945 and spurned Moscow’s plea for a $6 billion reconstructive loan while approving a similar $3.75 billion loan to Berlin. II. Stalin wanted a protective sphere around western Russian, for twice earlier in the century Russia had been attacked from that direction, and that meant taking nations like Poland under its control. III. Even though both the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. were recent newcomers to the world stage, they were very advanced and had been isolationist before the 20th century, now they found themselves in a political stare-down that would turn into the Cold War and last for four and a half decades. X. Shaping the Postwar World I. However, the U.S. did manage to establish structures that were part of FDR’s open world. o At a meeting at Bretton Woods , New Hampshire, in 1944, the Western Allies established the International Monetary Fund ( IMF ) to encourage world trade by regulating the currency exchange rates. II. The United Nations opened on April 25, 1945. o The member nations drew up a charter similar to that of the old League of Nations, formed a Security Council to be headed by five permanent powers (China, U.S.S.R., Britain, France, and U.S.A.) that had total veto powers, and was headquartered in New York City. o The Senate overwhelmingly approved the U.N. by a vote of 89 to 2. III. The U.N. kept peace in Kashmir and other trouble spots, created the new Jewish state of Israel, formed such groups as UNESCO (U.N. Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization), FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization), and WHO (World Health Organization), bringing benefits to people all over the globe. IV. However, when U.S. delegate Bernard Baruc h called in 1946 for a U.N. agency free from the great power veto that could investigate all nuclear facilities and weapons, the U.S.S.R. rejected the proposal, since it didn’t want to give up its veto power and was opposed to “capitalist spies” snooping around in the Soviet Union. The small window of regulating nuclear weapons was lost. XI. The Problem of Germany I. The Nuremberg Trials of 1945-46 severely punished 22 top culprits of the Holocaust . II. America knew that an economically healthy Germany was indispensable to the recovery of all of Europe, but Russia, fearing another blitzkrieg, wanted huge reparations from Germany. III.
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This document was uploaded on 10/29/2011 for the course HISTORY 103 at Rutgers.

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ColdWar - IX.TheUnitedStatesandtheSovietUnion I. With the...

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