Culture - I.RevivingReligion I. Church attendance was...

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I. Reviving Religion I. Church attendance was regular in 1850 (3/4 of population attended) II. Many relied on Deism (reason rather revelation); Deism rejected original sin of man, denied Christ’s divinity but believed in a supreme being that created universe with an order, similar to a clockmaker. III. Unitarian faith begins (New England) o believed God existed in only 1 person, not in the orthodox trinity; stressed goodness of human nature o believed in free will and salvation through good works; pictured God as a loving father o appealed to intellectuals with rationalism and optimism IV. These perversions of Christianity ignited Christians to “take back their faith” and oppose these new beliefs V. Liberalism in religion started in 1800 spawned the 2nd Great Awakening a tidal wave of spiritual fervor that resulted in prison reform, church reform, temperance movement (no alcohol), women’s rights movement, abolition of slavery in 1830s o it spread to the masses through huge “camp meetings” o the East went to the West to Christianize Indians o Methodists and Baptists stressed personal conversion, democracy in church affairs, emotionalism o Peter Cartwright – was best known of the “circuit riders” or traveling preachers o Charles Grandison Finney – the greatest revival preacher who led massive revivals in Rochester, NY II. Denominational Diversity I. The revival furthered fragmentation of religious faiths o New York, with its Puritans, preached “hellfire” and was known as the “ Burned-Over District .” o Millerites ( Adventists ) – predicted Christ to return to earth on Oct 22, 1844. When this prophesy failed to materialize, the movement lost credibility. o The Awakening widened lines between classes the region (like 1st Great Awakening) o conservatives were made up of: propertied Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Unitarians o the less-learned of the South the West (frontier areas) were usually Methodists or Baptists II. Religion further split with the issue of slavery (i.e. the Methodists and Presbyterians split) III. A Desert Zion in Utah I. Joseph Smith (1830) claimed to have found golden tablets in NY with the Book of Mormon inscribed on them. He came up with the Mormon faith, officially called the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints o antagonism toward Mormons emerged due to their polygamy, drilling militia, and voting as a unit
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o Smith was killed, but was succeeded by Brigham Young , who led followers to Utah o they grew quickly by birth and immigration from Europe o they had a federal governor and marched to Utah when Young became governor o the issue of polygamy prevented Utah’s entrance to U.S. until 1896 IV. Free School for a Free People I. The idea of tax-supported, compulsory (mandatory), primary schools was opposed as a hand-out to paupers o Gradually, support rose because uneducated “brats” might grow up to be rabbles with voting rights o Free public education, triumphed in 1828 along with the voting power in the Jackson election
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Culture - I.RevivingReligion I. Church attendance was...

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