I. The Westward Movement
The U.S. marched quickly toward the West which proved to be very hard with disease and
Frontier people were individualistic, superstitious and ill-informed of current matters.
II. Shaping the Western Landscape
The westward movement molded the environment.
Tobacco overuse had exhausted the land forcing settlers to move on, but “Kentucky bluegrass”
Settlers trapped beavers, sea otters, and bison for fur to ship back East.
The spirit of nationalism led to an appreciation of the American wilderness.
Artist George Catlin pushed for national parks and later achieved it with Yellowstone in 1872.
III. The March of the Millions
In the mid-1800s, the population continued to double every 25 years.
By 1860, the original 13 states now had become 33 states; the American population was 4th in
the world (behind Russia, France, Austria).
Urban growth continued explosively.
In 1790, only New York & Philadelphia had more than 20,000 people, but by 1860, 43
With growth came poor sanitation ‡ later, sewage systems and piped-in water came
A high birthrate had accounted for population growth, but near 1850s, millions of Irish and German
They came due to a surplus population in Europe, but not all came to the U.S.
The appeal of the U.S. was for land, freedom from church, no aristocracy, 3 meat meals a day.
Also, transoceanic steamships were used meaning travel time dropped to 12 days and it was
IV. The Emerald Isle Moves West
potato famine in the mid-1840s led to the death of 2 million and saw many flee to the U.S.
”—they mainly came to cities like Boston and especially New York (biggest Irish
They were illiterate, discriminated against by older Americans, and received lowest-paying jobs
They were hated by Protestants because they’re Catholic.
Americans hated the Irish (such as “NINA”—No Irish Need Apply); the Irish hated competition
with blacks for the low-paying jobs.
The Ancient Order of Hibernians was established to aid the Irish.
Gradual property ownership came about, and their children earned education.