Urbanization2 - IX Booker T Washington and Education for...

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IX. Booker T. Washington and Education for Black People I. The South, war-torn and poor, lagged far behind in education, especially for Blacks, so Booker T. Washington , an ex-slave came to help. He started by heading a black normal (teacher) and industrial school in Tuskegee , Alabama, and teaching the students useful skills and trades. o However, he avoided the issue of social equality; he believed in Blacks helping themselves first before gaining more rights. II. One of Washington’s students was George Washington Carver , who later discovered hundreds of new uses for peanuts, sweet potatoes, and soybeans. III. However, W.E.B. Du Bois , the first Black to get a Ph.D. from Harvard University, demanded complete equality for Blacks and action now. He also founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People ( NAACP ) in 1910. o Many of DuBois’s differences with Washington reflected the contrasting life experiences of southern and northern Blacks. X. The Hallowed Halls of Ivy I. Colleges and universities sprouted after the Civil War, and colleges for women, such as Vassar , were gaining ground. o Also, colleges for both genders grew, especially in the Midwest, and Black colleges also were established, such as Howard University in Washington D.C., Atlanta University , and Hampton Institute in Virginia. II. The Morrill Act of 1862 had provided a generous grant of the public lands to the states for support of education and was extended by the Hatch Act of 1887, which provided federal funds for the establishment of agricultural experiment stations in connection with the land-grant colleges. III. Private donations also went toward the establishment of colleges, including Cornell, Leland Stanford Junior, and the University of Chicago, which was funded by John D. Rockefeller. IV. Johns Hopkins University maintained the nation’s first high-grade graduate school. XI. The March of the Mind I. The elective system of college was gaining popularity, and it took off especially after Dr. Charles W. Eliot became president of Harvard. II. Medical schools and science were prospering after the Civil War. o Discoveries by Louis Pasteur and Joseph Lister (antiseptics) improved medical science and health. o The brilliant but sickly William James helped establish the discipline of behavioral psychology, with his books Principles of Psychology (1890), The Will to Believe (1897), and Varieties of Religious Experience (1902).
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