IX. Booker T. Washington and Education for Black People
The South, war-torn and poor, lagged far behind in education, especially for Blacks, so
, an ex-slave came to help. He started by heading a black normal (teacher) and
school in Tuskegee
, Alabama, and teaching the students useful skills and trades.
However, he avoided the issue of social equality; he believed in Blacks helping themselves first
before gaining more rights.
One of Washington’s students was
George Washington Carver
, who later discovered hundreds of
new uses for peanuts, sweet potatoes, and soybeans.
W.E.B. Du Bois
, the first Black to get a Ph.D. from Harvard University, demanded
complete equality for Blacks and action now. He also founded the National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People (
) in 1910.
Many of DuBois’s differences with Washington reflected the contrasting life experiences of
southern and northern Blacks.
X. The Hallowed Halls of Ivy
Colleges and universities sprouted after the Civil War, and colleges for women, such as
were gaining ground.
Also, colleges for both genders grew, especially in the Midwest, and Black colleges also were
established, such as
in Washington D.C.,
of 1862 had provided a generous grant of the public lands to the states for support
of education and was extended by the
of 1887, which provided federal funds for the
establishment of agricultural experiment stations in connection with the land-grant colleges.
Private donations also went toward the establishment of colleges, including Cornell, Leland
Stanford Junior, and the University of Chicago, which was funded by John D. Rockefeller.
Johns Hopkins University
maintained the nation’s first high-grade graduate school.
XI. The March of the Mind
The elective system of college was gaining popularity, and it took off especially after Dr. Charles W.
Eliot became president of Harvard.
Medical schools and science were prospering after the Civil War.
(antiseptics) improved medical science and
The brilliant but sickly
helped establish the discipline of behavioral psychology,
with his books
Principles of Psychology
The Will to Believe
Varieties of Religious
His greatest work was