poli sci 255 study guide

poli sci 255 study guide - I. Identifications A. Truman...

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I. Identifications A. Truman Doctrine – US commitment to aid Greece and Turkey against Soviet and Soviet- assisted threats. i. Economic and not military ii. The significance was that it established the US as the world leader following WWII. a) More importantly, it was against the Soviet Union and set a precedent for post WWII policy. B. NSC 68 – security-planning paper developed by President Truman's National Security Council, it called for 3 important shifts in US strategy. i. Globalization - “the assault on free institutions is world wide now”, prevent commies from gaining status ii. Militarization (of containment) – global ring of military bases. iii. Hydrogen bomb – H-bomb, the h-bomb was deemed necessary to maintain nuclear deterrence iv. Significance: incredible amounts of military spending, sets a trend for the rest of the century and 21 st century C. 38 th parallel – occupation of Korea by Soviets D. NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization – 1949 marked the first peacetime military alliance in America history i. With the US's Truman Doctrine establishing diplomatic relationships and the Marshall Plan establishing economic assistance, NATO was a military commitment to keep US troops in Europe (and the collective defense). a) This protection provision also included a commitment for using nuclear weapons against the USSR if necessary. b) This move away from isolationism was a consensual change because it passed in the senate 82-13. E. McCarthyism – the country was consumed with paranoia surrounding speculation that people were communists. i. Significance: Self-examination, which is essential for any successful policy process was closed off. F. Nuclear deterrence – the prevention of attack because of the fear of retaliation i. Before nuclear warfare, countries could strategize if deterrence failed, but now nuclear war could not be won. ii. If you strike first, we’re going to punch back. iii. Brodie and Jentleson readings. G. Baruch Plan – the plan was a US proposal to the UN Atomic Energy Commission for international control of nuclear weapons i. The Soviet Union rejected the plan, Stalin had non peaceful intentions H. “ABC” - anything but communism: rationale was “i'm going to cheer for any guy that beats the commies, even if that guy practices an awful government style” i. Could we have worked with Vietnam leader who fought with the Allies in WWII? The only thing that mattered was that he is a commie. ii. “ABC democrat” was someone who was ABC and a democrat, but kill him off when necessary and unpopular, in the case of Vietnam's Diem. I. Bay of Pigs – flawed executive-branch decision making i. Basic premise – it involved US-engineered invasion of Cuba by exiled forces seeking to overthrow Castro ii. Flaws via contradictions, the ability to rise up and the people still seeing Castro as a liberator
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iii. CIA intelligence failures iv. It was a “groupthink” dynamic that dominated the policy-making process
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This document was uploaded on 10/31/2011 for the course POLI SCI 255 at UMass (Amherst).

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poli sci 255 study guide - I. Identifications A. Truman...

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