Lecture11

Lecture11 - Abhishek Bhattacharjee Topics: s Transistors s...

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Unformatted text preview: Abhishek Bhattacharjee Topics: s Transistors s Logic Gates s Combinational Circuits s Karnaugh Maps Reading: s Chapter 4: Section 4.2 CS 211: Computer Architecture Digital Logic Rutgers University Abhishek Bhattacharjee 2 Transistor: Building Block of Computers Microprocessors contain millions (billions) of transistors s Intel Pentium 4 (2000): 48 million s IBM PowerPC 750FX (2002): 38 million s IBM/Apple PowerPC G5 (2003): 58 million Logically, each transistor acts as a switch Combined to implement logic functions s AND, OR, NOT Combined to build higher-level structures s Adder, multiplexer, decoder, register, Combined to build processor Rutgers University Abhishek Bhattacharjee 3 Simple Switch Circuit Switch open : s No current through circuit s Light is off s V out is +2.9V Switch closed : s Current flows s Light is on s V out is 0V Switch-based circuits can easily represent two states: on/off, open/closed, voltage/no voltage. Rutgers University Abhishek Bhattacharjee 4 n-type MOS Transistor MOS = Metal Oxide Semiconductor s two types: n-type and p-type n-type s when Gate has positive voltage, short circuit between #1 and #2 s when Gate has zero voltage, open circuit between #1 and #2 Gate = 1 Gate = 1 Gate = 1 Gate = 1 Gate = 0 Gate = 0 Gate = 0 Gate = 0 Rutgers University Abhishek Bhattacharjee 5 p-type MOS Transistor p-type is complementary to n-type s when Gate has positive voltage, open circuit between #1 and #2 s when Gate has zero voltage, short circuit between #1 and #2 Gate = 1 Gate = 1 Gate = 1 Gate = 1 Gate = 0 Gate = 0 Gate = 0 Gate = 0 Rutgers University Abhishek Bhattacharjee 6 Logic Gates Use transistors to implement logical functions: AND, OR, NOT Digital symbols: s recall that we assign a range of analog voltages to each digital (logic) symbol s assignment of voltage ranges depends on electrical properties of transistors being used c typical values for "1": +5V, +3.3V, +2.9V c from now on we'll use +2.9V Rutgers University Abhishek Bhattacharjee...
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Lecture11 - Abhishek Bhattacharjee Topics: s Transistors s...

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