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chapter_5_NEW_2010

chapter_5_NEW_2010 - SOCIAL,CULTURALAND ENVIRONMENTAL...

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SOCIAL, CULTURAL AND  ENVIRONMENTAL  THEORIES (PART I) Essentials of Health Behavior  Mark Edberg, Ph.D.
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SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY  (SCT) Originator was psychologist Albert Bandura. The theory was first called Social Learning Theory (SLT) – key principle was learning by observation of others (vicarious learning) . Over time, SLT grew to include other constructs related to an individual’s interaction with an environment. One of the most important of these is self efficacy. Self-efficacy The idea of self-efficacy as a key element in how people change behavior moves beyond the mechanistic conditioning process of change. The idea of reciprocal determinism was added –where behavior is part of a continuous interactive cycle that includes individuals and their social environment.
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SCT CONSTRUCTS Changing a behavior is a function of the following kinds of factors: Individual (internal) characteristics -- A person’s sense of self-efficacy about a new behavior, their confidence that they can overcome obstacles (barriers) to doing it. Environmental (external) factors -- The social/physical environment surrounding individuals (including the modeling behavior of others). The interactive process of reciprocal determinism , where a person interacts with an environment, receives a response from the environment, adjusts behavior, interacts again, etc.
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CRITIQUES OF SCT SCT is very complex; it can be viewed as less of a theory than a related “grab-bag” of constructs. SCT has gone through a number of evolutions; as it evolved, it retained earlier constructs, increasing the general complexity of SCT and reducing its clarity as a theory.
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SOCIAL NETWORK THEORY Has gained increasing prominence recently, especially in the area of HIV/AIDS and in the development of network based interventions. A social network is the network of relationships surrounding a person, or larger networks involving the person.
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