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Chapter 2 Study guide

Chapter 2 Study guide - Chapter 2 Study Guide Ami McCarthy...

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Chapter 2 Study Guide - Ami McCarthy - PSY102-012 - Dr Helen Burroughs 1 1. Define the Neuron - a highly specialized cell designed to receive and transmit information in electrical and chemical form - “neur”, nerve cell 2. Explain the 3 types of neurons. Sensory Neurons - bring in or convey information from the environment (light, sound) from specialized receptor cells in the sense organs to the brain Motor Neurons - take info back out or communicate info to the muscles and glands of the body InterNeurons - provide communication between neurons - most of the neurons in the body are interneurons and many are connected to others. (Neurons never touch each other) 3. What are Glial cells - provide support to neurons including nutrition and remove waste products like dead or damaged neurons and play an active role in signaling and communicating information between neurons 4. What disease is it where the myelin sheath is attacked? Multiple Sclerosis - the degeneration of patches of the myelin sheath, causing the transmission of neural messages to be slowed or interrupted, resulting in disturbances in sensation and movement. Some characteristics include: Muscular weakness, loss of coordination and speech and visual disturbances. 5. List and describe the parts of the neuron. Dendrites - receive information from other neurons and sensory receptors Cell Body - provides energy for the neuron to carry out its functions Nucleus - within the cell body, contains the cell’s genetic material Axon - carries the neuron’s message to other body areas (the Axon Membrane controls the balance of the positive and negative ions on the interior and exterior of the axon, opening anc losing ion channels allowing ions to glow into and out of the axon) Myelin Sheath - white, fatty covering formed by glial cells, provides insulation on the axons of some neurons, increasing neuron communication speed; more sheath present results in faster impulses “Nodes” of Ranvier - a gap in the myelin sheath (like linked sausage) Axon Terminal - a branch at the end of the axon, containing synaptic vessels Synaptic Vessels - tiny fluid-filled sacs of neurotransmitters Synaptic Gap or Cleft - space between axon terminal of one neuron and dendrites of another neuron 6. Explain all parts of the action potential Resting Potential - 70mv millivolts - the (idle) state in which a neuron is prepared to activate and communicate its message if it receives sufficient stimulation; the cell is not firing - there are different concentrations of Sodium and potassium ions. While resting, there is a greater concentration of negative proteins (sodium) inside the neuron more negatively charged than the exterior
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fluid of positive proteins (potassium) surrounding the axon. Stimulus Threshold
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Chapter 2 Study guide - Chapter 2 Study Guide Ami McCarthy...

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