ARM.SoC.Architecture

Now the range of numbers is 2 147 483 64810 to 2 147

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Unformatted text preview: ill be an in-range number of the wrong value and sign. Other number sizes The natural representation of a number in the ARM is as a signed or unsigned 32-bit integer; indeed, internally to the processor that is all that there is. However, all ARM processors will perform unsigned 8-bit (byte) loads and stores, allowing small positive numbers to occupy a smaller space in memory than a 32-bit word, and all but the earliest versions of the processor also support signed byte and signed and unsigned 16-bit transfers, also principally to reduce the memory required to store small values. Where a 32-bit integer is too small, larger numbers can be handled using multiple words and multiple registers. A 64-bit addition can be performed with two 32-bit 156 Architectural Support for High-Level Languages additions, using the C flag in the status register to propagate the carry from the lower word to the higher word: ; 64-bit addition of [r1,r0] to [r3,r2] ADDS r2, r2, r0 ; add low, save carry ADC r3, r3, r1 ; add high with carry Real numbers So far we have just considered integers, or whole numbers. 'Real' numbers are used to represent fractions and transcendental values that are useful when dealing with physical quantities. The representation of real numbers in computers is a big issue that is deferred to the next section. An ARM core has no support for real data types, though ARM Limited has defined a set of types and instructions that operate on them. These instructions are either executed on a floating-point coprocessor or emulated in software. After the number, the next most basic data type is the printable character. To control a standard printer we need a way to represent all the normal characters such as the upper and lower case alphabet, decimal digits from 0 to 9, punctuation marks and a number of special characters such as , $, %, and so on. Counting all these different characters, the total rapidly approaches a hundred or so. Some time ago the binary representation of these characters was standardized in the 7-bit ASCII (American Standard for Computer Information Interchange) code, which includes these printable characters and a number of control codes whose names reflect the tel...
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