ARM.SoC.Architecture

Physical design so far we have been concerned

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Unformatted text preview: it must still be recharacterized. Early ARM cores were delivered only as hard macrocells. Their design was based upon full-custom datapaths, with control logic designed at the logic schematic level and converted to layout using automatic place and route tools and a standard cell library. To ease process portability the cores were designed using generic design rules (for both the cell library and the full-custom datapath) that allowed geometrical transformations of the same physical layout to be used to map the same physical layout onto a range of individual processes with similar but not identical design rules. Recent ARM cores have been available in both hard and soft forms. The hard macrocells increasingly use synthesis for their control logic while retaining hand-drawn full-custom datapaths. The soft macrocells are fully synthesizable from a register transfer level (RTL) description. Some ARM partners have adopted a middle course, using a gate-level netlist description of an ARM core as their basis for porting to new processes. The porting procedure no longer involves resynthesis, but simply mapping the same netlist (using automatic place and route tools) onto a standard cell library implemented on the new process. The ARM coprocessor interface 101 The choice between hard and soft macrocells (or gate-level netlists) is a complex decision. Hard macrocells can clearly give the best area, performance and power-efficiency on a process, but it takes significant time, effort and cost to port them to each process. Soft macrocells and portable netlists are more flexible, and automated tools are now of a quality that means that they come close to hand layout in performance. The portablility of the soft macrocell may mean that the choice is between a soft macrocell on the latest process or a hard macrocell on an older process, and the process technology advantage could easily outweigh the slight loss of optimization. 4.5 The ARM coprocessor interface The ARM supports a general-purpose extension of its instruction set through the addition of hardware coprocessors, and it also supports the software emulation of these coproce...
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This document was uploaded on 10/30/2011 for the course CSE 378 380 at SUNY Buffalo.

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