Pipeline does relatively little work in phase 1 of

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Unformatted text preview: rocessing instruction should modify the condition codes in the CPSR is implicit in the Thumb opcode; this must be made explicit in the ARM instruction. The Thumb 2-address format can always be mapped into the ARM 3-address format by replicating a register specifier. (Going the other way is not, in general, possible.) The simplicity of the decompression logic is crucial to the efficiency of the Thumb instruction set. There would be little merit in the Thumb architecture if it resulted in complex, slow and power-hungry decompression logic. 7.10 Thumb applications To see where Thumb offers a benefit we need to review its properties. Thumb instructions are 16 bits long and encode the functionality of an ARM instruction in half the number of bits, but since a Thumb instruction typically has less semantic content than an ARM instruction, a particular program will require more Thumb instructions than it would have needed ARM instructions. The ratio will vary from program to program, but in a typical example Thumb code may require 70% of the space of ARM code. Therefore if we compare the Thumb solution with the pure ARM code solution, the following characteristics emerge: Thumb properties The Thumb code requires 70% of the space of the ARM code. The Thumb code uses 40% more instructions than the ARM code. With 32-bit memory, the ARM code is 40% faster than the Thumb code. With 16-bit memory, the Thumb code is 45% faster than the ARM code. Thumb code uses 30% less external memory power than ARM code. So where performance is all-important, a system should use 32-bit memory and run ARM code. Where cost and power consumption are more important, a 16-bit memory system and Thumb code may be a better choice. However, there are intermediate positions which may give the best of both worlds: Thumb systems A high-end 32-bit ARM system may use Thumb code for certain non-critical routines to save power or memory requirements. 204 The Thumb Instruction Set A low-end 16-bit system may have a small amount of on-chip 32-bit RAM for critical routines running ARM code, but use off-chip Thumb code for all non-critical routines. The second of these examples is perhaps...
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This document was uploaded on 10/30/2011 for the course CSE 378 380 at SUNY Buffalo.

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