Chapter 12 Back Vowels

Chapter 12 Back Vowels - Back Vowels Back Vowels /u ʊ o ɔ...

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Unformatted text preview: Back Vowels Back Vowels /u ʊ o ɔ ɑ/ The tongue shifts back from the central position. Vowels are made in the back space of the oral cavity with tongue tip at lower teeth. High vowels: u ʊ Mid vowels: o ɔ Low vowel: ɑ Tense vowels: u o Lax vowels: ʊ ɔ ɑ Articulatory Diagrams and Palatograms Articulatory Diagrams and Palatograms /u/ rounded page 273 /ʊ/ rounded page 278 /o/ rounded page 284 /ɔ/ rounded page 289 /ɑ/ unrounded page 295 /ɒ/ rounded counterpart of /ɑ/ /u/ /u/ High back tense rounded vowel Physiological Description Lips: rounded and protruded Tongue: shifted back and elevated VP Port: closed Vocal folds: adducted truth truth amuse cruel stool poor cupid canoe reputation musical Allophonic Variations Allophonic Variations Schwa is often added to /u/ before liquids ­examples: Vowel reduction: /u/ ­ /ʊ/ ­ /ə/ ­example: “today” Dialectal and Foreign Variations Dialectal and Foreign Variations SA, EA: /j/ before /u/ ­examples: “tune” “student” “news” Deviations None that are significant. Easy to produce and an early developing sound Workbook Pages 46­47 Workbook Pages 46­47 / ʊ/ High back lax rounded vowel Physiological Description Lips: rounded and protruded Tongue: shifted back and elevated VP port: closed Vocal folds: adducted push push could shook full (other words?) Say each word two ways Say each word two ways roof root hoof hoop cooper Allophonic Variations Allophonic Variations Vowel reduction: /u/ ­ /ʊ/ ­ /ə/ Dialectal and Foreign Variations No significant differences May tend to produce /u/ in place of /ʊ/ Contrast /u/ ­ /ʊ/ Contrast /u/ ­ / Workbook page 57 Workbook page 57 Nonsense Words Nonsense Words /o/ /o/ Mid back tense rounded vowel The mid space for back vowels May be diphthongized in stressed syllables Physiological Description Physiological Description Mandible: lowered Lips: rounded and protruded Tongue: tip lowered, elevated to mid position and retracted back VP port: closed Vocal folds: adducted hotel hotel homespun roses chosen float boasted stove repose moped Allophonic Variations Allophonic Variations Diphthongization: /o/ becomes /oʊ/ in stressed syllables ­examples: rainbow, boat, toad Vowel reduction: /o/ becomes /ə/ in unstressed syllables ­examples: pillow Dialectal and Foreign Differences Dialectal and Foreign Differences None that are significant Deviations None that are significant /ɔ/ Low mid back lax rounded vowel Frequently spelled “aw” or “au” Physiological Description Physiological Description Mandible: lowered Lips: rounded and protruded Tongue: back slightly and depressed VP port: closed Vocal folds awesome awesome awkward flaunt small ball tall vault chalk shawl Allophonic and Dialectal Variation Allophonic and Dialectal Variation /ɔ/ becomes /ɒ/ with added rounding GA: /ɔ/ and /ɑ/ and /ɒ/ may be used as allophones of each other NYC: may be rounded and nasalized “coffee” SA: may be pronounced as /ɔ/ or as /ɔʊ/ Contrasting /ɔ/ /ɔʊ/ /ɑ/ Contrasting / cough dog tall chalk ball frog office shawl Practice pg. 65 Practice pg. 65 /ɑ/ Low back lax unrounded vowel Only back vowel that is unrounded Most common vowel in the world’s languages Other vowels may evolve from /ɑ/ Physiological Description Physiological Description Mandible: low, perhaps lowest of all vowels Lips: apart, neutral Tongue: low, flat, no contact VP Port: closed Vocal folds: adducted hot hot stop bomb trolley fox clock laso apso volley chocolate Allophonic and Dialectal Variations Allophonic and Dialectal Variations /ɑ/ can become rounded and /ɒ/ “college” /ɑ/ can become fronted and /a/ “college” GA: /ɑ/ becomes /ɒ/ GA: /ɑ/ becomes /ɔ/ especially in “au” and “aw” words Words to Contrast Words to Contrast Phrases Phrases Nonsense Words Nonsense Words ...
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This document was uploaded on 10/31/2011 for the course COMD J507 at South Carolina.

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