Chapter 11 Central Vowels

Chapter 11 Central Vowels - Central Vowels Central Vowels...

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Unformatted text preview: Central Vowels Central Vowels /ʌ ə ɝ ɚ / /ʌ/ is a lower mid­to­back central lax vowel More tense than /ə/ Same position as /ɔ/ but unrounded Physiological Description Physiological Description Mandible: slightly lowered Lips: apart and neutral Tongue: central, almost flat, tip near lower teeth VP port: closed Vocal folds: adducted cup cup runs stuck bungee jungle stomach trouble mustard jumper Allophonic Variations Allophonic Variations /ʌ/ becomes /ɛ/ as in the word ”such” or “just” Dialectal and Foreign Variations None that are significant Deviations Deviations Stoel­Gammon and Herrington have evidence to suggest that front and back vowels are more accurate than central vowels. /ə/ Mid­central lax vowel 43 different spellings of schwa The most commonly used vowel No specific letter of the alphabet The most reduced vowel Physiological Description Physiological Description Mandible: lowered slightly Lips: apart and neutral Tongue: central plane, almost flat, tip lowered onion onion tunnel accuse felon avoid listen annoyed garden detergent Allophonic Variations Allophonic Variations Can be produced as /I/ in unstressed syllables Both /ə/ and /I/ are reduced vowels in unstressed syllables Dialectal and Foreign Variations SA: Schwa added to make diphthongs and triphthongs Deviations Deviations Developmental error called “breaking” of clusters. ­examples: Real Words Real Words Nonsense Words Nonsense Words /ɝ/ Mid central (r­colored) tense vowel Stressed schwar or vocalic r Only used in stressed syllables Can be in all 3 positions of words /ɝn/ /bɝn/ /bɝ/ Some use /ɝ/ as a means of teaching placement for /r/* Physiological Description Physiological Description Mandible: lowered slightly Lips: apart, rounded Tongue: central, slightly elevated, tip lowered, retroflexed, variable VP: closed Vocal folds: adducted urge urge church stir earnest mercury refer return merchant tournament Allophonic Variations Allophonic Variations Syllable division may create a variation that is represented as /ʌr/ in place of /ɝ/ ­examples: /mʌri/ /hʌri/ /hɝi/ /fʌro/ /mɝi/ /fɝo/ Dialectal and Foreign Variations Dialectal and Foreign Variations SA: /ɝ/ may sound more like /3/ “There was a bird on my windowsill and I heard him sing.” /ɝ/ is very difficult for some speakers of a foreign language May also be produced laxly in some dialects of British English Deviations Deviations Lax production of this phoneme occurs when there is insufficient retroflexion May sound a bit like /ʊ/ Produce these words with a lax /ɝ/ earn burp her burger curler murder /ɚ/ Mid central (r­colored) lax vowel Schwar is used in unstressed syllables Used in forming nouns from verbs as in “runner” “batter” “driver” Used in comparatives “bigger” “taller” “longer” Physiological Description Physiological Description Mandible: slightly lowered Lips: apart, slightly rounded Tongue: central, slightly elevated, tip lowered, retroflexed, variable VP: Vocal folds: closed adducted odor odor shiver future soldier motor answering butterdish flirtatious generate Allophonic Variations Allophonic Variations Changes can occur with a vowel before /r/ ­may be vowel + /r/ or /ɚ/ ­examples: “separation” “corruption” Deviations Deviations Lax /r/ Produce these words with a lax /ɚ/ mother father sister /ɝ/ and /ɚ/ words ...
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This document was uploaded on 10/31/2011 for the course COMD J507 at South Carolina.

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