Stress and the Central Vowels

Stress and the Central Vowels - Stress and the Central...

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Unformatted text preview: Stress and the Central Vowels Stress and the Central Vowels Some phoneticians only use stressed /ɝ/ and /^/ Others only use unstressed /ɚ/ and /ə/ Using all four helps us learn about stress ­ a determiner of meaning in words and sentences Chapter 14 Stress Chapter 14 Stress Stress refers to ways that speakers emphasize some aspect of speech Word­level stress differentiates words “record” “record” Phrase or sentence stress is tied to meaning and is manifested in melody or intonation Many ways to say “I love you.” Elements of stress Elements of stress Pitch is the primary element Loudness is another element Duration is another element Pitch Jump Pitch Jump An upward pitch step Jump in pitch on prominent syllable of a word Jump in pitch on prominent syllable of important word in a phrase or sentence Types of Stress Types of Stress Primary stress is the high point in an utterance Secondary stress occurs in syllables or words that surround the high pitch point of the word or sentence Non­stress is possible in multisyllabic words and sentences. Level stress often occurs in compound words Primary Stress on First Syllable Primary Stress on First Syllable Primary Stress on Second Syllable Primary Stress on Second Syllable Primary Stress on Next to Last Syllable Primary Stress on Next to Last Syllable Determining Stress ­ Practice Determining Stress ­ Practice ...
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