Chapter 11 Summer II 11 ECL

Chapter 11 Summer II 11 ECL - Punishment Instrumental...

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Punishment Instrumental conditioning procedure that decreases a behavior Positive contingency between a response and aversive stimulus make the response, stimulus is presented Passive avoidance – avoid aversive stimulus by not acting
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Punishment How punishment can and should be used is of interest in the criminal justice system, child- rearing, treatment of people with developmental disabilities, etc. Punishment can be a highly effective way to modify behavior, in some cases after only 1 or 2 trials – but under other circumstances, it may not be effective at all
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Experimental Analysis of Punishment Punishment procedure: make a target response aversive stimulus presented response should decrease Target response should be one that is likely to occur In therapeutic situations, the target response is something harmful or maladaptive (e.g., self injury) In experiments, the target response is first rewarded with positive reinforcement to make it a likely response, then punished
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Experimental Analysis of Punishment Types of Aversive Stimuli Used in Experiments Shock, sudden burst of air, loud noise, sour taste, a cue associated with something aversive (CS) Time out – Loss of opportunity to obtain positive reinforcement Overcorrection – required to correct mistake and do even more to make up for it (e.g., for teasing a younger sibling, a child has to apologize and write “I will not tease my sister” 100x) Point loss – chance to gain points when responding to one stimulus; will lose points if you respond to another
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Experimental Analysis of Punishment Effective punishment = response is suppressed Response suppression depends on features of aversive stimuli More intense and longer-lasting aversive stimuli are more effective in suppressing responses over time Continued use of less intense aversive stimuli can lead to habituation to punishment – responding recovers
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Experimental Analysis of Punishment Response suppression depends on prior experience with the aversive stimuli Initial exposure to low intensity punishment (mildly aversive stimulus) builds resistance to more intense punishment later – target behavior may continue Initial exposure to a high intensity punishment increases effects of later punishment with a mildly aversive stimulus – response is suppressed Mildly aversive stimuli can be effective after experience with more intense aversive stimuli in punishment E.g., knowing that driving drunk may lead to spending a night in jail may effectively suppress that behavior if the person had been in jail before for a longer period of time
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This document was uploaded on 10/31/2011 for the course PSYC E400 at South Carolina.

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Chapter 11 Summer II 11 ECL - Punishment Instrumental...

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