Chapter3_2 - CHEMISTRY 1307 Chapter III Chemical Reactions 1 Acids Bases Arrhenius Definition An is any substance that increases the H(aq

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9/7/2011 1 1 CHEMISTRY 1307 Chapter III Chemical Reactions 2 Acids & Bases Arrhenius Definition: An _____ is any substance that increases the H + (aq) concentration in an aqueous solution. HX(aq) H + (aq) + X (aq) A _____ is any substance that increases the OH (aq) concentration in an aqueous solution. MOH(aq) M + (aq) + OH (aq) Svante Arrhenius 1859-1927 3 Acids & Bases Brönsted-Lowry: An acid is any substance that ______ H + (aq) to another species in an aqueous solution. HX(aq) + H 2 O( l ) H 3 O + (aq) + X (aq) base is any substance that _____ an H + (aq) in an aqueous solution. H + (aq) + NH 3 ( aq ) NH 4 + (aq)
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9/7/2011 2 4 Acids & Bases 5 Acids & Bases HNO 3 NO 3 nitric acid nitr ate HNO 2 NO 2 nitrous acid nitr ite Polyatomic ions +1 -1 H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid sulfurous acid H 2 SO 3 SO 4 ? SO 3 ? sulf___ sulf___ 6 Strong Acids Strong acids are almost completely ionized in water. (strong electrolytes) Examples: HX (aq) (X = Cl, Br & I) hydro ___ ic acid HNO 3 (aq) ______ acid HClO 4 (aq) _______ acid H 2 SO 4 (aq)* _______ acid * Only the 1 st H is strong, sulfuric acid dissociates via: H 2 SO 4 (aq) H + (aq) + HSO 4 (aq)
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9/7/2011 3 7 Strong Acids An acid: H 3 O + in water + - + - 8 Weak Acids Weak Acids are ________ ionized in water. (weak electrolytes) Weak acids are governed by dynamic equilibrium. Examples: HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) nitrous acid hydrosulfuric acid hydrogen sulfate ion See your text and homework for more examples. Weak acids are written in their molecular form!!!! acetic acid (vinegar) HNO 2 (aq) H 2 S (aq) HSO 4 (aq) CH 3 COOH 9 Strong Bases   2 H O( ) NaOH(s) Na (aq) ΟΗ aq Bases: A base is a substance that ________ OH (aq) ions in water by dissociation in water: Strong bases are almost completely ________ in aqueous solution. (Strong electrolytes) Examples: Hydroxides of Group 1 (MOH(aq) where M = Li, Na, K ect…) and Ca, Sr, Ba.* *Ca(OH) 2 , Sr(OH) 2 & Ba(OH) 2 are slightly soluble, but that which dissolves is present as ions only.
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9/7/2011 4 10 Weak Bases NH 3 acts as a ______ by reacting with water: NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O( l ) Ammonia can also accept H + from an acid: NH 3 (aq) + H + (aq) NH 4 + (aq) + OH (aq) NH 4 + (aq) 11
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Chapter3_2 - CHEMISTRY 1307 Chapter III Chemical Reactions 1 Acids Bases Arrhenius Definition An is any substance that increases the H(aq

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