Chapter8 - 10/25/2011 CHEMISTRY 1307 Chapter VIII Bonding...

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10/25/2011 1 1 CHEMISTRY 1307 CHEMISTRY 1307 Chapter VIII Bonding and Molecular Structure 2 Chemical Bonding Problems and questions: 1. What holds the atoms in a molecule or ionic compound together? 2. Why are atoms in molecules often distributed at strange angles? 3. Why are molecules three dimensional? 4. Can we predict the structure of a compound? 5. How does structure relate to chemical and physical properties? 3 Chemical Bonding NN triple bond. Molecule is unreactive Phosphorus is a tetrahedron of P atoms. Very reactive! Red phosphorus, a polymer. Used in matches.
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10/25/2011 2 4 Chemical Bonding Chemical bond: attractive force holding two or more atoms together Covalent bond: a sharing electrons between the atoms. non metal / non metal bonds. Metallic bond: ________ force holding pure metals together. Cations in a sea of electrons. Ionic bond: electrostatic in nature, transfer of electrons from a metal to a nonmetal. ( _______ + ________) 5 Two Extreme Forms of Connecting/Bonding Atoms Ionic Bonding : : ____________ ____________ of 1 or more electrons from one atom to another. atom to another. (metals and non-metals) Covalent Bonding : valence electrons ______ ______ between atoms. between atoms. (non-metals and non- metals) Most bonds are somewhere in between. 6 Ionic Bonding 2 Na(s) + Cl 2 (g) f 2 Na + + 2 Cl -
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10/25/2011 3 7 Ionic Bonding 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 Ne 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 = [Ar] - 1e - Noble gas Na (Z=11) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 = [Ne] 3s 1 Cl (Z=17) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 Ar Noble gas 8 Ionic Bonding Ionic Bonding results when an electron or electrons are ____________ from one atom to another. The transfer results in each attaining a ____________electron configuration. Na + Cl 3s 1 3s 2 3p 5 Na + Cl e 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 Na + Cl - [Ne] [Ar] Noble gas electron configurations 9 Covalent Bonding There are many examples of compounds having covalent bonds, including the gases in our atmosphere (O 2 , N 2 , H 2 O, and CO 2 ), common fuels (CH 4 ), and most of the compounds in your body. Covalent bonding is also responsible for the ___________________in polyatomic ions.
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10/25/2011 4 10 Covalent Bonding The bond arises from the ________ attraction of 2 nuclei for the same electrons. Electron sharing results. H B + H A H B H A 11 Covalent Bond Formation Core and Valence electrons Chemistry occurs with VALENCE electrons Electrons are divided between _____ and _______ _________ B 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 Core = [He] , valence = 2s 2 2p 1 Br [Ar] 3d 10 4s 2 4p 5 Core = [Ar] 3d 10 , valence = 4s 2 4p 5 12 Covalent Bond Formation A covalent bond results from a ________ of valence orbitals on neighboring atoms. Valence Electrons:
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10/25/2011 5 13 Lewis Structures Electron distribution is depicted with ______ __________structures Valence electrons are distributed as shared or _____ PAIRS and unshared or _________ PAIRS .
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Chapter8 - 10/25/2011 CHEMISTRY 1307 Chapter VIII Bonding...

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