Unformatted text preview: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
6.976 High Speed Communication Circuits and Systems MidTerm Exam Copyright © 2003 by Michael H. Perrott Name__________________________ Problem 1 ______________ Problem 2 ______________ Problem 3 ______________ Problem 4 ______________ Total ______________ 1. (20 points) Consider the circuit network connected to lossless transmission lines of
characteristic impedance Z1 and Z2 as shown in the figure below. Assume in all cases
that Z1 and Z2 are purely real.
2Port for
Sparameter calculation Z1 Z2 R1
C1 S11 S22 a. Derive an expression for S11 in terms of Z1, Z2, R1, and C1. b. Derive an expression for S22 in terms of Z1, Z2, R1, and C1. c. Derive an expression for S21 in terms of Z1, Z2, R1, and C1. d. Consider the case where a pulse is launched down the left transmission line (with
impedance Z1). Will the initial portion of the voltage reflection back down the left
transmission line be positive, negative, or zero given Z1 = 50 Ohms, R1 = 75 Ohms,
C1 = 1 pF, and Z2 = 100 Ohms? Explain your answer. e. Consider the case where a pulse is launched down the right transmission line (with
impedance Z2). Will the initial portion of the voltage reflection back down the right
transmission line be positive, negative, or zero given Z1 = 50 Ohms, R1 = 75 Ohms,
C1 = 1pF, and Z2 = 100 Ohms? Explain your answer. 2. (25 points) Now consider the linearized VCO model shown in the figure below.
Negative
Resistance Amplifier Ideal
Transformer 1:10
2
in 1
gm Ain R C L Vout Aout where:
2
in = 4kT2gm Accompanying
noise source
not shown for R a. Calculate the value of gm for the negative resistance amplifier for which steadystate oscillation is achieved. b. Given the linearized VCO model illustrated on the previous page, derive an
expression for the phase noise of the oscillator, L(∆f). Your expression should be
a function of Ain, R, Q of the tank, and kT. c. State the difference (in dB) between the minimum phase noise that can be
achieved with the oscillator shown in the initial figure of this problem versus the
oscillator shown below. Assume that the voltage swing at the active element
output, Ain, is constrained in value to 2 V for both VCO structures, whereas the
voltage across the tank itself is not constrained in either case.
Negative
Resistance Amplifier 2
in 1
gm Ain R C where:
2
in = 4kT2gm Accompanying
noise source
not shown for R L Vout 3) (25 points) Consider the CMOS mixer shown below. Assume for all parts in this
problem that the frequency of the RF input, VRF, is 900 MHz, while the frequency of the
LO output, VLO, is 1 GHz. Also assume for all parts that the opamp has zero offset
voltage, infinite DC gain, and infinite unity gain bandwidth.
1.8 V 10 kΩ 0V
0V
VLO
VRF V1
M1 VIF 10 pF
0V a. Calculate the conversion gain of the mixer given that the channel resistance of M1
(from source to drain) is infinite when VLO = 0 V, and equals 1 kΩ when VLO =
1.8 V. b. Calculate IIP3 of the mixer (in units of peak voltage squared, Vp2) given that the
channel resistance of M1 (from source to drain) is infinite when VLO = 0 V, but
equals the following expression when VLO = 1.8 V:
Channel resistance = dVds/dId = 1 kΩ/(Vgs0.8VVds2/2) 4) (30 points) Consider the distributed amplifier shown below consisting of N transistors
whose input and outputs are connected through lossless transmission lines with
characteristic impedance Z0. For all parts to follow, ignore all loading effects of the
transistors (i.e., ignore Cgs, Cgd, Cdb, and ro), and assume that all transmission line
sections have equal delay. Also, ignore induced gate noise, and assume that the drain
noise of each transistor is related to its transconductance as
2
id
= 4kT2gm
∆f
In addition, assume that a fixed current density is chosen for the transistors such that the
transconductance for each transistor is related to its bias current as
gm= α Ibias delay RL=Z0 RL=Z0 Zo Zo Ibias delay
Rs=Z0 vin Zo Zo Ibias Zo vout Ibias M1 M2 MN Zo Zo Zo
RL=Z0 Source a. Compute the overall gain of the amplifier (vout/vin) as a function of the number of
stages in the amplifier, N. Your answer should be expressed in terms of Ibias, α,
Zo, and N. b. Compute the noise factor of the overall amplifier as function of N. Your answer
should be expressed in terms of Ibias, α, kT, Zo, and N. Suppose that loading by the transistors can only be neglected if their individual area,
At, is smaller than Ao. Assume that a specific current density is desired for each
transistor such that its area is related to its bias current as
At= β Ibias
Given this constraint, derive expressions for the following parts (c) and (d)
c. Determine the minimum number of stages, N, that are required to achieve an
overall amplifier gain (vout/vin) of G. For simplicity, assume that N does not need
to be expressed as an integer value. d. Suppose you desire to achieve the best noise factor given a fixed overall gain, G.
Do you do better, worse, or the same for noise factor if you set N higher than the
minimum value calculated in the previous part? Explain your answer. ...
View
Full Document
 Spring '03
 MICHAELPERROTT
 Electrical Engineering, Transistor, Transmission line, Characteristic impedance, Lossless Transmission Lines

Click to edit the document details