Exam 1 Long essay - Khang Ton HIS 111 09/18/2011 Long essay...

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Khang Ton HIS 111 09/18/2011 Long essay for the First Exam Civilization came into being as the societies grew, developed and became more and more complex. By definition, civilization is a society which is in an advance state of social development. To understand more about civilization and how geography affected it, let’s examine two of the largest societies before the common era: Mesopotamia and Egypt. Mesopotamia was named by the Greeks for the valley between Tigirs and Euphrates rivers; basically, it meant “land between the rivers”. Mesopotamia was made up of different regions, each with its own geography. Therefore, they affected the society in each different ways. The Northern area had many natural resources such as woods, metal and stone so it was easier for those people who lived here. Furthermore, the rivers and the stream were fed from the hills and mountain together with the seasonal rain make this land fertile. Therefore, it was such a good place for farming; their economy was primarily agricultural. In the Sourthern area, the land was mostly flat and barren since the temperatures could rise up really high, although storms from Persian Gulf could cool things off at certain times of the year, and there was very little rainfall. However, because of those difficulties, they invented an irrigation system to make farming more possible. About Egypt, their land was separated into two regions called the “Red Land” and the “Black Land”. The “Red Land” was the lagest desert on the Africa continent called Sahara; it was also a natural barrier which protected the Egyptian from invasion. There was also another natural barrier to the north of the land: the Mediterranean Sea. The “Black Land” was called by its color from the fertile soil, which, of course, was enriched by the Nile river, and dark silt that
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lush crops grew on it. In general, natural vegetation and wildlife kept the people from both lands well fed. Despite the differences, both of the lands had rivers, and rivers were the most important part of people’s life. The Tigirs, the Euphrates and the Niles affected to many aspects of the societies such as economy or religion. They were the main element in the societies’ development. As mentioned, those rivers enriched the soil and created areas that capable of producing abundant harvest. Especially the Nile with its annual and predictable flooding which considered as life-enhancing instead of life-threatening. Since their food mainly came from farming, their lives were mostly depended on the rivers’ water. Therefore, they built temple to pray for the gods of the rivers to have a stable life. Specifically, the Egyptian called the Nile’s god Hapi. In addition, people not only worship the rivers’ god but also other gods of other
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Exam 1 Long essay - Khang Ton HIS 111 09/18/2011 Long essay...

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