TQMNotes - Chapter One Introduction to Quality The History...

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Chapter One: Introduction to Quality The History and Importance of Quality Quality assurance – refers to any action directed toward providing consumers with products (goods and services) of appropriate quality. Usually associated with some form of measurement and inspection. Egyptian wall paintings from around 1450 B.C. show evidence of measurement and inspection. The Age of Craftsmanship During the Middle Ages in Europe, the skilled craftsperson served as both manufacturer and inspector. Manufacturer – dealt directly with the customer. Quality assurance was informal, every effort was made to ensure that quality was built into the final product by the people who produced it. During the middle of the 18 th century, Honore Le Blanc developed a system for manufacturing muskets to a standard pattern using interchangeable parts- -- Thomas Jefferson then brought the idea to America -- In 1798 the U.S. government awarded Eli Whitney a contract to supply 10,000 muskets to the government in two years’ time. -- Overall the concept of interchangeable parts was recognized, and it eventually led to the industrial revolution. The Early 20 th Century The work of Frederick W. Taylor, “The Father of Scientific Management”, led to a new philosophy of production. His philosophy was to separate the planning function from the execution function. Managers and engineers – given the task of planning; supervisors and workers - the task of execution. Inspection was the primary means of quality control during the first half of the 20 th century.
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Henry Ford – developed Total Quality Management (TQM). Statistical Quality Control (SQC) – the application of statistical methods for controlling quality; it is focused on identifying and eliminating the problems that cause defects. Post-World War II During late 1940’s and 1950’s – the shortage of civilian goods in the United States made production a top priority. Dr. Joseph Juran and Dr. W. Edwards Deming introduced statistical quality control techniques to the Japanese to aid them in their rebuilding efforts. Kaizen was introduced The U.S. Quality Revolution The 1980’s were a period of remarkable change and growing awareness of quality by consumers, industry, and government. 1950’s and 1960’s – U.S. consumers purchased domestic goods and accepted their quality without question. 1970’s – increased global competition and the appearance of higher- quality foreign products on the market led U.S. consumers to consider their purchasing decisions more carefully. W. Edwards Deming – one of the most influential individuals in the quality revolution. From 1980 until Deming’s death in 1993, his leadership and expertise
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TQMNotes - Chapter One Introduction to Quality The History...

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