ANIREPRO

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Unformatted text preview: �WPC##### ######�##2#z#########B#####*###J#####�###t### #Z### #####|#x###Bookman Old Style (Light) (TT)#Helvetica########################�#�#�#�#B �#�# 0�#*�Q###�#0###################################################### ####�#`#�#2#�######P�#�kC###�#P############################################ ################################################################################ ##�##2#x#####? ###�#####�###�#########p#########v###�###����phoenix########��####X#b#�# �#B �#�# 0�#*�Q######X#0###� # #######�l#########�########�##2#######l###�#################################D efault Paragraph Fo##Default Paragraph Font################################## ### #####�########��########��# #�#�#�#�# ##��#�######################################################################## #############1#######################################�##��#a#! ##( ###�###################�#####@#####d#d#################################### ######################################�########��#�###` �###h#�###p#�# #x#� (#��������������������������������������������� ���������####################�#4#� � <#�#�#D#�#�#L#�#�! ����������������������������������������������� �������####################�#�#�##��####�#I#�#2#�######P�#�kC###### �#P###��########� ANIMAL REPRODUCTION QUESTION 1979:�#######��#######��#######�L. PETERSON/AP BIOLOGY �####X#X#�#2#�######P�#�kC######X#P###� �#######��####�#I#�#2#�######P�#�kC######�#P###�Describe the role of the hypothalamus, the pituitary hormones, and the ovarian �#######�hormones in the regulation of the human menstrual cycle. Include in your �#######�discussion the concept of feedback control and the way in which fertilization of �#######�the egg alters the menstrual cycle. a##� �########��#�###` �###h#�###p#�# #x#� (#��������������������������������������������� ���������####################�#4#� � <#�#�#D#�#�#L#�#�! ����������������������������������������������� �������####################�#�#�##��####�#I#�#2#�######P�#�kC###### �#P###��########�STANDARDS: �#�Hypothalamus and Feedback�#�: � �Maximum 6 pts.� � __low progesterone or estrogen resulting in positive feedback __secretion of a releasing factor __secretion of pituitary FSH __high level of progesterone or estrogen resulting in negative feedback __causing a decrease in LH releasing factor __causing a decrease in LH __the "pill" and its influence on feedback __influence of stress on feedback �#�Pituitary Hormones�#�: � �Maximum 6 pts.� � __FSH secretion by the pituitary gland __the effect of FSH on egg formation __stimulation of estrogen secretion by FSH __LH (or FSH & LH) resulting in ovulation __corpus luteum formation by LH stimulation __progesterone secretion by LH stimulation __decreased LH causing corpus luteum breakdown __formation of corpus albicans �#�Ovarian Hormones�#�: � �Maximum 4 pts.� � __estrogen secretion by follicles inhibiting menstrual flow __estrogen secretion initiating endometrial growth __progesterone from corpus luteum promoting further endometrial growth & vascularization __low level of progesterone and estrogen causing menstrual flow �#�Fertilization�#�: � �Maximum 2 pts.� � __effect of human or placental chorionic gonadotropin on the pituitary gland __no menstrual cycle �#�Bonus Point�#�: � �Maximum 1 pt.� � __mentioning the days or phases of the cycle __a good descriptive diagram __a high estrogen level resulting in stimulation of the hypothalamus to release more LHRF � �Maximum of 12� � if Fertilization and Feedback are �#�not�#� included in the discussion. � �Maximum of 14� � if �#�either�#� Fertilization or Feedback are discussed and not both. �#�########################################################################### ##########1#######################################�##��#�#A##( ###�######### ##########�#####@#####d#d###################################################### #################### ANIMAL REPRODUCTION QUESTION 1989:�#######��#######��#######�L. PETERSON/AP BIOLOGY �#######�Describe negative and positive feedback loops, and discuss how feedback �#######�mechanisms regulate each of the following: �#######��#######�a. The menstrual cycle in a nonpregnant human female �##� STANDARDS: �#�Introduction: (describe �/+ feedback loops)�#� 1 pt �#######��#######�1. Definition as an overview of the process: Control mechanism �#######��#######� which is regulated through the effect it brings about. 1 + 1 pts�#######�2. Negative feedback: Endproduct acts as an inhibitor of pathway �#######��#######� (stimulatory�inhibitory). �#######��#######� Seek terms such as inhibit/turn off. Examples: ACTH �> cortisol �> �#######��#######� feedback; �#######��#######� Lac operon; thermostat metaphor; CO�#��#�2�#��#� respiration, etc. 1 + 1 pts�#######�3. Positive feedback: change in variable amplifies the pathway �#######��#######� (stimulatory�stimulatory). �#######��#######� Seek terms such as turn on/stimulate/induce. Examples: �#######��#######� Oxytocin/birth; LH surge; trypsinogen/trypsin; neural membrane �#######��#######� permeability; mating process; sound amplification metaphor; etc. �#######�[one point for definition and one point for example] �#######�Note: these points might be embedded in Parts A and B.�#######� � �Total of 3 points maximum for introduction out of 5 points possible.� � �#�Part A: Menstrual Cycle�#� 1 pt�#######��#######�1. Primary function of the cycle as an overall concept: production of �#######��#######� gamete and preparation of the uterus. A broad interpretation OK. 1 + 1 + 1 pts�#######�2. Hormones and interactions: look for information that suggests cause �#######��#######� and effect and a pathway. Items a�c are complete examples. To earn a �#######��#######� point, three targets, hormones, and sources must be given in a logical �#######��#######� sequence. �#######��#######� Wrong information will void a string of three. The goal is to find �#######��#######� physiological relationships and not just terms. �#######� a. GnRH (hypothalamus) �> FSH (pituitary) �> estrogen (ovary) �> �#######� endometrium �#######� b. GnRH (hypothalamus) �> LH (pituitary) �> progesterone (corpus luteum) �#######� �> endometrium �#######� c. estrogen �> LH surge �> ovulation Research on the regulation of the menstrual cycle is rapidly evolving and textbooks can reflect different philosophies or progress of research. 1 or 2 pts�#######�3. Negative feedback results on hypothalamus/pituitary. �#######��#######� Estrogen/progesterone inhibits FSH and LH production at the GnRH �#######��#######� (hypothalamus) and pituitary level. If no choriogonadotropic hormone �#######��#######� �> estrogen/progesterone levels drop and endometrium stimulus no �#######��#######� longer supported � > endometrium lost as cycle begins again and FSH �#######��#######� and LH released from inhibition. [2 points for completeness] 1 pt�#######��#######�4. Positive feedback: estrogen �> LH surge. Note: estrogen can be both �#######��#######� inhibitory and stimulatory on the hypothalamus/pituitary. � �Total of 5 points maximum for Part A out of 7 points possible.� ...
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