Earth_122_Ch08_notes_-slides

Earth_122_Ch08_notes_-slides - 8.Air,Weather,andClimate...

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Introduction to Environmental Science: 8. Air, Weather, and Climate Earth 122 Prof. Walter A. Illman
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Air, Weather, and Climate Climate is an angry beast and we are poking it with sticks. Wallace Broecker, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory
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Objectives Summarize the structure and composition of the atmosphere. Explain how the jet streams prevailing winds Explain how the jet streams, prevailing winds, and frontal systems determine local weather. D ib h d d l i Describe how tornadoes and cyclonic storms form and why they are dangerous. Comprehend how El Niño cycles change ocean surface temperatures and affect continental climate.
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Objectives Understand the driving forces thought to bring about normal climate change. Analyze human contributions to global climate change and what effects our modifications are having on physical and biological systems having on physical and biological systems. Debate policy options for responding to the h f l b l li h threats of global climate change.
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Outline Composition and Structure of the Atmosphere The Great Weather Engine Weather Coriolis Effect Cyclonic Storms Climate El Niñ El Niño Climate Change
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COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE Weather A description of physical conditions of the atmosphere. Climate A description of the long term weather A description of the long term weather pattern in a particular area. Weather and climate are primar determinants of Weather and climate are primary determinants of biomes and ecosystem distribution.
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Composition of the Lower Atmosphere
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A Layered Envelope Troposphere Ranges in depth from 12.5 km over the equator to 8.0 km over the poles. All weather occurs here. Composition is relatively uniform. Ai t t d idl ith i i ltit d Air temperature drops rapidly with increasing altitude. Tropopause Transition boundary that limits mixing between the troposphere and upper zones.
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A Layered Envelope Stratosphere Extends from troposphere to about 45 km. Air temperature is stable or increases with altitude Air temperature is stable, or increases with altitude. Fraction of water vapor is 1000x less and ozone is 1000x more than in the troposphere. l i l l Relatively calm
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