Earth_122_Ch08_notes_-slides

Earth_122_Ch08_notes_-slides -...

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Introduction to Environmental Science: 8. Air, Weather, and Climate Earth 122 Prof. Walter A. Illman
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ir, Weather, and Climate Air, Weather, and Climate Climate is an angry beast and we are poking it with sticks. Wallace Broecker, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory
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bjectives Objectives mmarize the structure and composition of Summarize the structure and composition of the atmosphere. plain how the jet streams prevailing winds Explain how the jet streams, prevailing winds, and frontal systems determine local weather. Describe how tornadoes and cyclonic storms form and why they are dangerous. Comprehend how El Niño cycles change ocean surface temperatures and affect continental climate.
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bjectives Objectives nderstand the driving forces thought to bring Understand the driving forces thought to bring about normal climate change. nalyze human contributions to global climate Analyze human contributions to global climate change and what effects our modifications are aving on physical and biological systems having on physical and biological systems. Debate policy options for responding to the threats of global climate change.
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utline Outline Composition and Structure of the Atmosphere The Great Weather Engine eather Weather Coriolis Effect yclonic Storms Cyclonic Storms Climate El Niño Climate Change
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COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE eather description of physical conditions of Weather A description of physical conditions of the atmosphere. limate description of the long rm weather Climate A description of the long term weather pattern in a particular area. eather and climate are primar determinants of Weather and climate are primary determinants of biomes and ecosystem distribution.
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Composition of the Lower Atmosphere
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Layered Envelope A Layered Envelope oposphere Troposphere Ranges in depth from 12.5 km over the equator to 8.0 km over the poles. All weather occurs here. Composition is relatively uniform. i tt d idl ith ii ltit d Air temperature drops rapidly with increasing altitude. Tropopause Transition boundary that limits mixing between the troposphere and upper zones.
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Layered Envelope A Layered Envelope ratosphere Stratosphere Extends from troposphere to about 45 km. ir temperature is stable or increases with altitude Air temperature is stable, or increases with altitude. Fraction of water vapor is 1000x less and ozone is 1000x more than in the troposphere. Relatively calm
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Layered Envelope A Layered Envelope esosphere Mesosphere Middle Layer inimum temperature is about 0 o Minimum temperature is about 80 C. Thermosphere t d t bt 1 600 k Extends to about 1,600 km.
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