Earth_122_Ch11_notes

Earth_122_Ch11_notes - 2/27/2009 Introduction to...

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2/27/2009 1 Introduction to Environmental Science Introduction to Environmental Science: 11. Water Quantity and Quality Earth 122 Prof. Walter A. Illman Water Quantity and Quality Water, water everywhere; nor any drop to drink. Samuel Taylor Coleridge
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2/27/2009 2 Objectives Describe the important ways we use water and distinguish between withdrawal, consumption, and degradation. Appreciate the causes and consequences of water shortages around the world and what they mean in people’s lives in water poor countries. Understand the arguments for and against large dams. Objectives Apply some water conservation methods in your own life. Define water pollution and describe the sources and effects of some major types. Appreciate why access to sewage treatment and clean water are important to people in developing countries. Discuss the status of water quality in developed and developing countries.
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2/27/2009 3 Objectives Delve into groundwater problems and suggest ways to protect this precious resource. Fathom the causes and consequences of ocean pollution. Weigh the advantages and disadvantages of different human waste disposal techniques different human waste disposal techniques. Outline Water Availability and Use Freshwater Shortages Increasing Water Supplies Water Management and Conservation What is Water Pollution? Types and Effects of Water Pollution Water Quality Today Water Pollution Control Source Reduction Municipal Sewage Treatment Low Cost Waste Treatment Water Remediation
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2/27/2009 4 WATER AVAILABILITY AND USE Renewable Water Supplies Made up of surface runoff and infiltration into accessible freshwater aquifers. About two thirds of water carried in rivers and streams annually occurs in seasonal floods too large or violent to be stored effectively for human use. Readily accessible, renewable supplies are 1,500 km 3 /person/year.
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2/27/2009 5 Drought Cycles Every continent has regions of scarce rainfall due to topographic effects or wind currents. Water shortages have most severe effect in semiarid zones where moisture availability is the critical factor in plant and animal distributions. U.S. seems to have 30 year drought cycle. Climatic changes such as global warming may alter cycles. Types of Water Use Withdrawal Total amount of water taken from a source. Consumption Fraction of withdrawn water made unavailable for other purposes (Not returned to its source). Degradation Change in water quality due to contamination making it unsuitable for desired use.
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2/27/2009 6 Types of Water Use Many societies have always treated water as an inexhaustible resource. The natural cleansing and renewing functions of the hydrologic cycle do replace the water we need.
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This note was uploaded on 10/31/2011 for the course EARTH 122 taught by Professor Calia during the Spring '08 term at Waterloo.

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Earth_122_Ch11_notes - 2/27/2009 Introduction to...

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