Earth_122_Ch13_notes

Earth_122_Ch13_notes - Introduction to Environmental...

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3/3/2009 1 Introduction to Environmental Science Introduction to Environmental Science: 13. New Energy Technologies Earth 122 Prof. Walter A. Illman New Energy Technologies The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them. Albert Einstein
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3/3/2009 2 Objectives Appreciate the opportunities for energy conservation available to us. Understand how active and passive systems capture solar energy and how photovoltaic collectors generate electricity. Comprehend why diminishing fuel wood supplies are a crisis in less developed countries. Objectives Evaluate the use of dung, crop residues, energy crops, and peat as potential energy sources. Explain how hydropower, wind, and geothermal energy contribute to our power supply. Describe how tidal and wave energy and ocean thermal gradients can be used to generate electrical energy.
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3/3/2009 3 Objectives Compare and contrast different options for storing energy from intermittent or remote sources. Outline Conservation Tapping Solar Energy Passive vs. Active High Temperature Solar Energy Storing Electrical Energy Photovoltaic Generation Fuel Cells Methane as Fuel Energy From Earth’s Forces
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3/3/2009 4 CONSERVATION Utilization Efficiencies Today’s average new home uses half the fuel required in a house built in 1974. Reducing air infiltration is usually the cheapest, quickest, and most effective way of saving household energy. According to new national standards: New washing machines will have to use 35% less water in 2007. Will cut U.S. water use by 40 trillion liters annually. Utilization Efficiencies For even greater savings, new houses can be built with extra thick superinsulated walls, air to air heat exchangers, and double walled sections (house within a house). Special double glazed windows Superinsulated homes Home orientation
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3/3/2009 5 Energy Conversion Efficiencies Energy Efficiency is a measure of energy produced compared to energy consumed. Thermal conversion machines can turn no more than 40% of energy in primary fuel into electricity or mechanical power due to waste heat. Fuel cells can theoretically approach 80% efficiency using hydrogen or methane. Energy Conversion Efficiencies Transportation Most potential energy in fuel is lost as waste heat. In response to 1970’s oil prices, average U.S.
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Earth_122_Ch13_notes - Introduction to Environmental...

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