Chapter 8 - Chapter 8-Harvesting Energy From Food:...

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Chapter 8—Harvesting Energy From Food: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Mitochondria o Powerhouses for the cell—produces the cell’s ATP. o Mitochondria malfunctions can have serious consequences for an individual’s health. o More than 100 genetic mitochondrial disorders have been identified, and all lead to energy shortage, muscle weakness, and chronic fatigue. Cellular respiration is a cumulative function of 3 metabolic stages: o Glycolysis Harvests chemical energy by breaking down glucose to pyruvate Glyco = sugar Lysis = to break apart Glycolysis is a catabolic pathway during which a 6-carbon glucose is spit into 2 3-carbon sugars, which are then rearranged by a stepwise process that produces 2 pyruvic acid molecules. Occurs in the cytoplasm, with or without O2. 2 phases: Glucose Activation Phase o Uses cellular ATP to phosphorylate (adds a phosphate group to) the glycolysis intermediates. o Costs 2 ATP molecules per glucose. Energy Harvest Phase o Produces ATP o Yields 4 ATP molecules per glucose o 2 molecules of NADH per glucose. If there is no oxygen present, then the pyruvic acid molecules from glycolysis go through fermentation . Anaerobic—takes place without O2 No ATP production. Results in the partial degradation of sugars. Regenerates NAD+ 2 types: o Alcohol fermentation o Lactic acid fermentation How is champagne different from wine? Both are the result of alcohol fermentation. Yeast is allowed to consume the sugars in grapes. Alcohol is produced in the process. With wine, this process is completed BEFORE being bottled up. With
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Chapter 8 - Chapter 8-Harvesting Energy From Food:...

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