Exam 4 Study Guide--Chapters 8 and 11

Exam 4 Study Guide--Chapters 8 and 11 - Exam 4 Material...

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Exam 4 Material Chapter 8—Harvesting Energy From Food: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Basics o We breakdown glucose to CO2 and energy. o Cellular respiration —the removal of energy from organic molecules and storing it inATP. Energy is released when the bond is broken, which produces ATP. Mitochondria o Powerhouse for the cell—produces the cell’s ATP. o Mitochondria malfunctions can have serious consequences for an individual’s health. o More than 100 genetic mitochondrial disorders have been identified, and all lead to energy shortage, muscle weakness, and chronic fatigue. Cellular respiration is a cumulative function of 3 metabolic stages: o Glycolysis Occurs in the cytoplasm, with or without O2, harvesting chemical energy by breaking down glucose to pyruvate Glyco = sugar Lysis = to break apart Glycolysis is a catabolic pathway during which a 6-carbon glucose is spit into 2 3-carbon sugars, which are then rearranged by a stepwise process that produces 2 pyruvic acid molecules. 2 phases: Glucose Activation Phase o Uses cellular ATP to phosphorylate (adds a phosphate group to) the glycolysis intermediates. o Costs 2 ATP molecules per glucose. Energy Harvest Phase o Produces ATP o Yields 4 ATP molecules per glucose o 2 molecules of NADH per glucose. If there is no oxygen present, then the pyruvic acid molecules from glycolysis go through fermentation . Anaerobic—takes place without O2 No ATP production. Results in the partial degradation of sugars. Regenerates NAD+ 2 types: o Alcohol fermentation o Lactic acid fermentation How is champagne different from wine? Both are the result of alcohol fermentation. Yeast is allowed to consume the sugars in grapes. Alcohol is produced in the process. With wine, this process is completed BEFORE being bottled up. With champagne, the fermentation occurs INSIDE the champagne bottle. This produces CO2 bubbles, which pressurize inside the bottle. This is why the cork flies off when you open it.
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o Krebs cycle (aka Citric Acid Cycle) If there is NO oxygen around then fermentation occurs following glycolysis. If there IS oxygen around, the pyruvic acid molecules from glycolysis go to the bridge reaction, followed by the Krebs Cycle in cellular respiration. ATP production. Results in the complete breakdown of sugar. The reaction that connects glycolysis to the Krebs Cycle is the bridge reaction , which converts pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA. Formation of acetyl CoA: o 1) Removal of CO2. o 2) Production of NADH from NAD+ 2 molecules of NADH per glucose molecule. o 3) Attachment of coenzyme A (aka CoA) to form acetyl CoA Occurs in the mitochondrial matrix, the innermost part of the mitochondria. Completes the breakdown of glucose that glycolysis started.
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This note was uploaded on 10/30/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 1001 taught by Professor Crousillac during the Summer '10 term at LSU.

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Exam 4 Study Guide--Chapters 8 and 11 - Exam 4 Material...

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