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MS 1(1) - Q1(a.Identify and compare basic classifications...

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1 Q 1 (a).Identify and compare basic classifications of materials. Quality Metal Ceramic Polymers Composed element Composed with metallic elements and non metallic elements in small amounts Compounds between metallic and non-metallic elements (metallic oxides) Composed with organic compounds based on C,H & other non-metallic elements Density Higher density Lower than metals Lower than metal and ceramic both Stiffness & Strength Highly stiff Higher stiffness Lower than metals and ceramic both Ductility Highly ductile lack of ductility Extremely ductile & pliable Electric and Thermal conductivity Highly conductive Act as Insulators Low conductivity Resistance to fracture Highly Resistive Lower than metals Lower then metals and ceramic both (b). Describe composite material types with examples Composites Composites are materials which are composed of two or more component parts (Metals, Ceramics & Polymers).These component parts may have different physical or chemical properties and when carefully inspected, they appear as separate parts, bonded together, forming a composite material. There are two types of composites. 1. Natural composites -(wood , bones) Wood is a natural composite material containing an orientated hard phase, for strength and stiffness, and a softer one for toughness. Natural woods are composed of varying shapes of cellulose fibers. A simplified cross-section of a tree trunk is drawn below and shows the different parts. The structure of natural woods makes them extremely versatile and they have a vast range of uses / practical applications. Other natural composites include bones, teeth, plant leaves and bird feathers. The silky threads spun by the spider can be as strong as steel and have been recently found to consist of a gel core encased by a solid structure of aligned molecules.
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2 Pith - Represents the early growth of the tree composed of dead tissue. Annual Rings - Shows the growth of the tree during one season. Heart Wood - Composed of hardened cells, giving the tree most of its strength and provides most of the usable timber. Sapwood - Newly formed wood, often not used during the manufacture of wood products, as it is too soft. Cambium layer - Surrounds the sapwood and is the part of the tree where new timber growth takes place. Wood cells grow on the inside of the cambium layer. Cortex and bark - Composed of wood cells and air. Rays - Thin lines of tissue. The rays distribute the waste to mature cells, where it is stored 2. Synthetic composites -(Fiberglass ,CFPP) Its all about man made composites.
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