EE 331 laboratory experiments are designed to give students an opportunity to practice the knowledge they
have gained throughout the course in a hands-on manner. These laboratory procedures educated students on
the necessary equipment, techniques, and data analysis techniques needed in future electrical circuit design.
At the culmination of this course, students should be able to calculate properties of devices, explain how such
devices function, and have the ability to design a functioning system utilizing the knowledge learned over the
course . This course expectation fulfills the ABET criteria that students “design and conduct experiments,
as well as to analyze and interpret data.”  To meet this course objective and ABET criteria, the
experiments started with a basic technical level and became increasingly complex technically.
The laboratory experiments for EE 331 began with an exploration into the characteristics of a laboratory
transformer to further understand AC and DC voltages in a circuit. Amplitudes of 21.2 V and 10.6 V were
generated using the transformer and the effect of adding a DC offset varying from -21.2 V to +21.2 V was
studied. These AC voltages and DC offset voltages were used in numerous procedures and allowed students to
fully capture the I-V characteristics of diodes. By understanding the conditions that allow diodes to operate,
more complicated circuits, such as rectifiers, voltage regulators, and voltage clampers could be understood.
Diode behavior was a key concept in order to understand the voltage regulator, which used a zener diode.
This voltage regulator was later used in the construction of a full-wave bridge rectifier. In addition to the
voltage regulator, half-wave rectifier, and full-wave bridge rectifier, the diode was also used in exploring a
voltage clamper circuit. These various applications led to the study of transistors and logic circuits—the most
important subjects in EE 331.
Numerous applications of transistors were studied in EE 331 Laboratory experiments. The first application of
the transistor was inverter technology; more specifically, resistive load, depletion-mode NMOS, and CMOS
inverters. Each inverter’s VTC characteristic was compared with each of the other inverters and it was
concluded that the CMOS inverter was the closest to ideal out of the inverters explored; it had the larger and
most equivalent noise margins and had relatively good symmetry. Inverters were then used to build basic
logic gates such as NAND and NOR gates. These basic logic gates were then used in various applications, such
as the CMOS square wave oscillator and a push-button simulation circuit. In the square wave oscillator, it was
determined that a larger resistance resulted in a smaller frequency. In the push-button simulation circuit, the
circuit’s operation was validated through the use of an LED. Becoming familiar with the use of varying AC and
DC voltages, understanding diode characteristics and their application, understanding transistors and their