final study guide2

final study guide2 - Population ecology is concerned with...

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P opulation ecology is concerned with changes in population size and factors that regulate populations over time A population is a group of individuals of a single species that occupy the same area. They rely on the same resources and are affected by the same factors within that environment. Population density is the number of individuals of a species per unit area. Clumped dispersion pattern – individuals are grouped together, the most common in nature. Uniform dispersion pattern – they are dispersed uniformly usually due to territorial behavior. Random dispersion pattern – in plants this is seen as seeds are dispersed unpredictably by wind or animals. In the animal kingdom this is rarely the case due to social interactions. Life tables track the survivorship of individuals at varying ages. These can be used to construct a survivorship curve which plots the individuals from a population that are alive at each age. The exponential Growth model shows the rate of population increases under ideal conditions Calculated using the equation G = rN G is the growth rate of the population N is the population size r is the per capita rate of increase The logistic growth model shows a idealized population growth slowed by limiting factors as the size increases. Certain populations undergo fluctuations in density with regularity. They experience booms with population growth and busts when the population decreases.
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Life history - series of events from birth to death. r / K selection r -selective traits- the selection of quantity (mice, rabbits, weeds) K -selective traits- the selection of quality (people, elephants, tortoises) The development-reproduction or r-K trade-off is associated with an array of typical differences between types of organisms: r-organisms K-organisms short-lived long-lived small large weak strong or well-protected waste a lot of energy energy efficient less intelligent, experienced. .. more intelligent, experienced. .. have large litters have small litters reproduce at an early age reproduce at a late age fast maturation slow maturation little care for offspring much care for offspring strong sex drive weak sex drive small size at birth large size at birth
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A community consists of interacting organisms living closely together. All communities and ecosystems have certain features in common Each type of ecosystem has its own unique structure and dynamics Interspecific interactions- Relationships with other species in the community Interspecific competition occurs when species or niches of two populations overlap and compete for resources. Competition lowers the carrying capacity. Mutualism
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final study guide2 - Population ecology is concerned with...

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