COMM 222 – Final draft, James Polese
Five-factor Model of Personality (OCEAN), “Big Five”:
Extraversion: Sociable, talkative (extrovert) vs. withdrawn, shy (introvert).
Emotional stability/neuroticism: Stable, confident (low neuroticism) vs. depressed, anxious (high
Agreeableness: Tolerant, cooperative (more) vs. cold, rude (less).
Conscientiousness: Dependable, responsible (more) vs. careless, impulsive (less).
Openness to Expression: Curious, original (more) vs. dull, unimaginative (less).
Locus of Control:
The belief pertaining to the contingency of one’s behaviour, be it external or internal.
High External: Belief hinges on fate, luck, powerful individuals.
High Internal: Belief hinges on self-initiative, personal actions, free will.
The extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings.
High self-monitors are concerned with their surroundings, socially appropriate behaviour, tune in to social
cues and regulate their behaviour. They are more involved in their jobs, perform at higher levels and emerge
as leaders. However, they show more role stress and are less committed to their organisation(s).
Low self-monitors are the opposite and are said to “wear their hearts on their sleeves”.
Behavioural Plasticity Theory:
People with low self-esteem seek approval from others, are more susceptible to
external and social influences.
Taking initiative to improve current circumstances or create new ones.
Stable personal disposition that reflects tendency to take personal initiative across a range of
activities and situations and to effect positive change in one’s environment.
Identify opportunities, take action and persevere until they bring about meaningful change.
Higher performance, tend to be more successful.
General Self-Efficacy (GSE):
A general trait that in an individual’s beliefs that they can perform well in a variety of
Many successes – high GSE.
A broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the evaluations
people hold about themselves and their self-worth.
Permanent change in behaviour potential that occurs due to practice and experience.
Operant Learning Theory (Learning):
Operate on the environment to achieve certain consequences.
Reinforcement: Stimuli that increases behaviour (positive: addition, negative: removal).
To decrease behaviour: Punishment (addition of unwanted stimuli) and extinction (removes reinforcement of
Social recognition; positive feedback; “pat on the back” is a positive reinforcer that reinforces desirable