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BIOL 140 REVIEW - BIOL 140 REVIEW Topic 1 Microbiology in...

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BIOL 140 REVIEW Topic 1 - Microbiology in Context 1.1 Microbiology What is microbiology? The science of microorganisms, over a century old, that has given rise to molecular biology and biotechnology What are the different microbes? Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Macroorganisms None known Eukarya: Animals Plants Microorganisms Archaea Bacteria Eukarya: Algae Fungi Protozoa 1.2 Microorganisms as cells What are the six functions that microbes carry out? Metabolism: uptake of chemicals from the environment, their transformation within the cell, and the elimination of wastes into the environment (cell is an open system) Reproduction (growth): chemicals from the environment are turned into new cells under the direction of pre-existing cells Differentiation: formation of a new cell structure (spore) usually as part of a cellular life cycle 1. Communication: cells communicate or interact primarily by means of chemicals that are released or taken up 1. Movement: capable of self-propulsion 2. Evolution: cells evolve to display new biological properties (phylogenetic trees show this relationship between cells) 1.4 The impact of microorganisms on humans How have microorganisms impacted humans? Agriculture - nitrogen fixation, nutrient cycling, animal husbandry Food - food preservation, fermentation, additives Disease - identifying new diseases, treatments, preventions Energy/Environment - biofuels, bioremediation, microbial mining Biotechnology - genetically modified organisms, production of pharmaceuticals, gene therapy Topic 2 - Pathways of Discovery 1.6 Historical Roots of Microbiology Who are the founders of microbiology and what are they responsible for? Robert Hooke (1635-1703) - his early microscopes allowed the first description of microbes (fruiting structures of mold) Antonie van Leuwenhoek (1632-1723) - his improvements in lens constructions allowed the first description of bacteria
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o "I then most always saw, with great wonder, that in the said matter there were many very little living animalcules, very prettily a-moving" Ferdinand Cohn (1828-1898) - discovered bacterial endospores and founded the field of bacteriology 1.7 Spontaneous generation Who is Louis Pasteur and why is he important? Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) discovered: o That living organisms discriminate between optical isomers o The biological nature of alcoholic fermentation 1. Disproved spontaneous generation and developed methods for controlling microbial growth 1. Developed vaccines for anthrax, fowl chloera and rabies What is spontaneous generation? In the 1860s, it was proposed as the source of microorganisms Pasteur developed as experiment that disproved it Describe Pasteur's experiment. Nonsterile liquid is poured into a flask, the neck of the flask is drawn out in flame
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BIOL 140 REVIEW - BIOL 140 REVIEW Topic 1 Microbiology in...

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