140 - Topic 2 Notes

140 - Topic 2 Notes - Topic 2 Microorganisms and...

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Unformatted text preview: Topic 2: Microorganisms and Microbiology Fundamentals of Microbiology (Biology 140) Course notes Dr. Josh D. Neufeld Learning Objectives: An introduction to (1) the historical origins of microbiology; (2) the concepts of cell structure and function (3) the concept of microbial diversity. Make sure to understand the following: Pasteur's experimental disproof of spontaneous generation -see Figure 1.16 Koch's postulates -see Figure 1.19 All living organisms, except viruses, are made up of cells (see Figure 2.11). Each cell is surrounded by a cell membrane, which separates the outside of the cell from the cytoplasm. Eukaryotic cells differ from prokaryotic cells in that they contain membrane- enclosed structures (organelles). These include mitochondria, chloroplasts and the nucleus. Prokaryotes do not have any of these structures. The comparison of ribosomal RNA sequences (Figure 2.16) has led to the development of an understanding of how different types of organisms are related to each other. This type of study is called phylogeny. We now know that there are two distinct lineages of prokaryotes, the Bacteria and the Archaea (Figure 2.17). The Archaea are actually more closely related to the Eukarya than they are to the Bacteria. ...
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