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CHEM 109A Lecture #8

CHEM 109A Lecture #8 - CHEM 109A Lecture#8 Alkenes...

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CHEM 109A Lecture #8 Alkenes react (Curved Arrows) A family is determined by its functional group. Functional Group – the center of reactivity of a molecule Electron-rich atoms or molecules are attracted to electron-deficient atoms or molecules. Electrophile – an electron deficient atom or molecule (looks for a pair of electrons) Nucleophile – an electron-rich atom or molecule (has electrons to share) A nucleophile reacts with an electrophile Since a π bond is weaker than a sigma bond, the π will break. The positively charged electrophile will react with the negatively charged nucleophile to form the molecule Mechanism of the reaction – description of the step-by-step process by which reactants are changed into products Addition reaction – a reaction in which atoms or groups are added to the reactant Electrophilic addition reaction – An addition reaction in which the first species that adds to the reactant is an electrophile. Thermodynamic and Kinetics Reaction Coordinate Diagram – describes the energy changes that take place during the course of a reaction The more stable the species, the lower is its energy Transition state – the energy maximum in a reaction step on a reaction coordinate diagram. The bonds are partially broken in the reactants and in the
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