HealthPromotionWorkplace5thEd.pdf - Health Promotion in the Workplace 5th Edition Michael P O\u2019Donnell MBA MPH PhD Editor Art Science of HEALTH

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Unformatted text preview: Health Promotion in the Workplace 5th Edition Michael P. O’Donnell, MBA, MPH, PhD, Editor Art & Science of HEALTH PROMOTION INSTITUTE best science + practical experience = best outcomes Notice to the Reader Publisher does not warrant or guarantee any of the products described herein or perform any independent analysis in connection with any of the products information contained herein. Publisher does not assume, and expressly disclaims any obligation to obtain and include information other than that provided by the provider or manufacturer. The reader is expressly warned to consider and adopt all safety precautions that might be indicated by the activities herein and to avoid all potential hazards. By following the instructions contained herein, the reader willingly assumes all risks in connection with such instructions. The Publisher makes no representation or warranties of any kind, including but not limited to, the warranties of fitness for a particular purpose or merchantability, nor are any such representations implied with respect to the material set forth herein, and the publisher takes no responsibility with respect to such material. The publisher shall not be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting in whole or part, from the readers’ use of, or reliance upon, this material. Publisher – Art & Science of Health Promotion Institute Art & Science of Health Promotion Institute CEO: Michael P. O’Donnell Project Manager: Leslie Nye O’Donnell, Esq. Vice President of Marketing: Patti Weber For information, use address Art & Science of Health Promotion Institute, P.O. Box 1254, Troy, MI or find us on the web at Copyright © 2017 by Michael P. O’Donnell All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distribution or information storage and retrieval systems – without the written permission of the publisher. For permission to use material from this text contact us by Tel (248) 879-2038 Fax (248) 630-4399 ISBN-13: 978-1539653561 ISBN-10: 1539653560 CON TRI BU T OR S Wesley F. Alles, PhD Director, Stanford Health Improvement Program Stanford Prevention Research Center Department of Medicine Stanford University Stanford, California Judd Robert Allen, PhD President Human Resources Institute, LLC and Wellness Culture Coaching, LLC Burlington, Vermont David R. Anderson, PhD Senior Vice President & Chief Health Officer StayWell Health Management St. Paul, Minnesota William B. Baun, MS Program Management of Workplace Health Promotion Programs Wellness Officer M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Houston, Texas Kamaldeep Bhui, BSc, MBBS, MSc, MD, Dipl. Clin. Psychotherapy Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine Queen Mary, University of London Charterhouse Square, London, England Richard Citrin, PhD, MBA President Citrin Consulting Pittsburgh, Pennsyvlania iv Contributors David M. DeJoy, PhD Professor Emeritus Director Emeritus, Workplace Health Group Department of Health Promotion & Behavior College of Public Health University of Georgia Athens, Georgia Robert Eric Dinenberg, MD, MPH Chief Medical Officer Viridian Health Management La Jolla, California Sokratis Dinos, BSc, Cert, MSc, PhD Psychology Programme Leader School of Health Department of Psychology BPP University London, England Meridith Eastman, MSPH Doctoral Student The Gillings School of Global Public Health Department of Health Behavior University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, North Carolina Edward M. Framer PhD Director of Health and Behavioral Sciences Health Fitness Corporation Dallas, Texas Jennifer L. Gay, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Health Promotion & Behavior College of Public Health University of Georgia Athens, Georgia Stefan B. Gingerich, MS Senior Research Analyst Staywell Health Management St. Paul, Minnesota Contributors Winifred A. Gebhardt, PhD Associate Professor Leiden University Leiden, The Netherlands Ron Z. Goetzel, PhD Visiting Professor, the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Director, Institute for Health and Productivity Vice President, Truven Health Analytics Bethesda, Maryland Catherine A. Heaney, PhD, MPH Associate Professor Department of Psychology, Stanford Prevention Research Center And Program in Human Biology Stanford University Palo Alto, California Judith Hibbard, PhD Senior Researcher, Health Policy Research Group Professor Emerita, Department of Planning, Public Policy & Management University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon Andriana A. Hohlbauch, MPH, MA Research Leader Truven Health Analytics Santa Barbara, California Jayne K. Jeffries, MA MHS Doctoral Student The Gillings School of Global Public Health Department of Health Behavior University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, North Carolina Gordon D. Kaplan, PhD Senior Director, Health Intelligence Alere Health Fort Worth, Texas v vi Contributors Karen B. Kent, MPH Research Program Manager Bloomberg School of Public Health Johns Hopkins University Washington, DC Brian A. King, PhD, MPH Senior Scientific Advisor for Epidemiology Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Office on Smoking and Health Atlanta, Georgia Kristin Kirkpatrick, MS, RD Manager Wellness Nutrition Services Cleveland Clinic Wellness Institute Cleveland, Ohio Laura Linnan, ScD Professor The Gillings School of Global Public Health, Department of Health Behavior University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, North Carolina Seth Noar, PhD Associate Professor School of Journalism and Mass Communication Member, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, North Carolina Steven P. Noeldner, PhD Partner at Mercer 4695 MacArthur Court Suite 600 Newport Beach California Contributors Michael P. O’Donnell, PhD, MBA, MPH Director & Clinical Professor Health Management Research Center School of Kinesiology University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan Editor in Chief and President American Journal of Health Promotion Troy, Michigan Heather M. Padilla, MS Research Director Workplace Health Group Department of Health Promotion & Behavior College of Public Health University of Georgia Athens, Georgia Michael Peterson, EdD Professor and Chair Department of Behavioral Health and Nutrition University of Delaware Newark, Delaware James O. Prochaska, PhD Director of the Cancer Prevention Research Center Founder of Pro-Change University of Rhode Island Kingston, Rhode Island Janice M. Prochaska, PhD President and CEO Pro-Change Behavior Systems, Inc. South Kingstown, Rhode Island Judith J. Prochaska, PhD, MPH Associate Professor of Medicine Stanford Prevention Research Center Department of Medicine Stanford University Stanford, California vii viii Contributors Nico P. Pronk, PhD, MA Vice President for Health Management and Chief Science Officer, HealthPartners Adjunct Professor of Social and Behavioral Science Harvard School of Public Health Bloomington, Minnesota Boston, Massachusetts James Pshock CEO and Founder Bravo Wellness IncentiSoft Solutions Cleveland, Ohio Enid Chung Roemer, PhD Visiting Associate Professor Institute for Health and Productivity Studies Department of Health, Behavior and Society Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Washington, DC Mari Ryan, MBA, MHP Chief Executive Officer AdvancingWellness, LLC Watertown, Massachusetts Erin L. D. Seaverson, MPH Director, Research Staywell Health Management St. Paul, Minnesota Alyssa Schultz, PhD Assistant Research Scientist Health Management Research Center School of Kinesiology University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan Contributors Michelle Segar, PhD, MPH Co-Director Sport, Health and Activity Research and Policy Center University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan Colleen M. Seifert, PhD Arthur F. Thurnau Professor Department of Psychology University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan Anastasia Snelling, PhD, RD Associate Professor, School of Education, Teaching & Health American University Washington, DC Kristyn J. Smith, BA Medical Student Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine Stratford, New Jersey Maryam J. Tabrizi, PhD, MS Research Leader Truven Health Analytics Bethesda, Maryland Paul E. Terry, PhD Chief Science Officer Staywell Health Management St. Paul, Minnesota Jessica Fitts Willoughby, PhD Assistant Professor Edward R. Murrow College of Communication Washington State University Pullman, Washington ix Mark G. Wilson, HSD Associate Dean of Academic Affairs College of Public Health Professor, Department of Health Promotion & Behavior Director, Workplace Health Group University of Georgia Athens, Georgia Kelly C. Young-Wolff, PhD MPH Postdoctoral Fellow Stanford Prevention Research Center Department of Medicine Stanford University Stanford, California Beverly Younger, LCSW, PhD Clinical Associate Professor Chair, Social Work & Business in a Global Society University of Southern California School of Social Work Los Angeles, California CON T EN T S PREFACE Michael P. O’Donnell, MBA, MPH, PhD, Editor Audience for the Book xxi xxi What’s New in This Edition? Historical Evolution of the Field xxii It Finally Feels Real xxii What Will Drive Future Growth? xxiii xxv What Could Derail Growth? References xxvi About the Editor xxix SECTION I THE HEALTH PROMOTION CONCEPT Chapter 1. Health Impact of Lifestyle and Health Promotion Robert Eric Dinenberg Introduction 1 The Health Impact of Lifestyle: Literature Review  5 The Health Impact of Health Promotion Programs: Literature Review  11 Unanswered Questions  18 Conclusion 19 Summary 20 References 24 Chapter 2. The Employer’s Business Case for Workplace Health Promotion 33 Michael P. O’Donnell, MBA, MPH, PhD and Alyssa Schultz, PhD Introduction: Why do Employers Invest in Health Promotion Programs?  33 Rational Reasons for Investing in Health Promotion Programs  37 1 xii Contents A Counter Perspective: The Emotional Factor  54 How Can an Employer Determine if a Health Promotion Program Will Be a Good Investment?  60 Conclusion 65 References 67 Chapter 3. The Face of Wellness Michael P. O’Donnell, MBA, MPH, PhD Process Used to Develop the AMSO Framework and Face of Wellness Model  73 The Face of Wellness Model  74 An Aspirational Vision of Health  75 Renewing Health Behavior Change Process  79 Awareness, Motivation, Skills and Opportunities  86 POSSE2:: The Dimensions of Opportunity  91 Relative Importance of Different Strategies  97 Conclusion and Implications  97 73 Appendix 3-A. Historical Roots of an Aspirational Vision of Health  99 References 101 Appendix 3-B. Causes of Income Inequality in the United States and Resulting Health Effects  103 Increases in Income Disparities in the United States  103 Growing Evidence of the Impact of Inequality on Health and Other Aspects of Quality of Life.  104 Damaging Effects of Inequality  105 References 106 References 109 SECTION II MANAGEMENT ISSUES Chapter 4. How to Design and Finance Workplace Health Promotion Programs Michael P. O’Donnell, MBA, MPH, PhD Introduction 113 Phase I:  Structuring the Design Process  114 Phase II:  Collecting Data–Conducting a Feasibility Study or Needs Assessment  121 Phase III:  Program Design–Developing Program Content and Management Structure  128 113 Contents xiii Design Options: Program Contents  130 Developing a Management Structure  133 Conclusion 141 Appendix 4-A. Integrating Financial Incentives into Health Plan Design based on Section 2705 of the Affordable Care Act and subsequent regulations  143 Integrate into Health Plan  143 Sequence of Regulations Relevant to Workplace Health Promotion 144 Key Provisions of Wellness Incentives Regulations  145 Recommended Incentive Structure  147 References 150 Appendix 4-B. Vendor Savings Guarantees  151 Introduction 151 Structure of Agreements  151 Challenges, Risks and Opportunities  154 Recommended Approach  154 References 154 Appendix 4-C. HERO Scorecard and CDC Scorecard  157 HERO Scorecard  157 References 158 References 159 Chapter 5. Management Processes 163 William Baun, MS Introduction 163 Element 1:  Management of Your Job and Growth  163 Element 2:  Management of People, Collaborators, and Stakeholders  168 Element 3:  Management of a Health Promotion Unit or Department  172 Element 4:  Management of Program Design, Planning, and Delivery  181 Element 5:  Management of the Reporting Process  189 Conclusion 190 References 192 Chapter 6. Health Promotion in the Workplace Program Evaluation 197 Ron Goetzel, PhD, Enid Chung Roemer, PhD, Karen Kent, MPH, Andriana Hohlbauch, MPH, MA, Maryam J. Tibrizi, PhD, Kristin Smith, BS Introduction 197 Principles of Applied Research  204 xiv Contents Evaluation Types  206 Study Methodology  220 Evaluation Cost and Timetable  246 Summary Comments  247 Appendix 6-A. Chapter 7. Sample Employee Satisfaction Survey  251 Program Awareness  251 Program Participation  251 Program Satisfaction and Impact  252 Incentives 253 Your Opinion Counts  254 References 256 Marketing and Communication Strategies Jessica Fitts Willoughby, PhD and Seth Noar, PhD Core Communication Principles®  263 Design Elements  263 Implementation 266 Evaluation 267 A Cohesive Model  267 Core Social Marketing Principles  269 Applications to Health Promotion Programs  270 Conclusion 272 References 273 263 SECTION III CORE THEORIES OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE FOR MOTIVATION AND SKILL BUILDING Chapter 8. Pursuing Health Related Goals Michelle Segar, PhD, MPH and Winifred A. Gebhardt, PhD Introduction 277 Conceptual Framework: Competing Goals  278 Review of Literature  278 Applications to Motivation  285 Applications to Skill Building  288 Unanswered Questions  291 Summary and Conclusion  293 References 295 277 Contents Chapter 9. Transtheoretical Model 303 James O. Prochaska, PhD and Janice M. Prochaska, PhD Introduction 303 Conceptual Framework: Core Constructs of the Transtheoretical Model  303 Critical Assumptions of the TTM  307 Review of the Empirical Literature  308 Applied Studies  310 Studies Challenging the Transtheoretical Model  310 Increasing Impacts with Multiple Behavior Change Programs  311 Applications to Motivation  313 Applications to Skill Building  315 Unanswered Questions and Future Research  318 Conclusion 318 References 320 Chapter 10. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Incentives in Workplace Health Promotion 325 Colleen M. Seifert, Ph.D and Joseph K. Hart, J. D. Introduction 325 Conceptual Framework: Introduction and Historical Foundation of Theories of Motivation  326 Studies of Effective Incentives in Health Behaviors  330 Applications to Motivation  336 Applications to Skill Building  338 Unanswered Questions  339 Conclusion 340 References 342 Chapter 11. Self-efficacy: Broad Implications for Research and Practice Judith J. Prochaska, PhD, MPH, Wesley F. Alles, PhD and Kelly C. Young-Wolff, PhD, MPH Introduction: Definition, History & Breadth of Impact  347 Conceptual Framework  349 Relevance and Application Across Theories  350 How Self-Efficacy Affects Behavior and Behavior Change: Review of the Empirical Literature  354 Unanswered Questions  362 Conclusion 363 References 366 347 xv xvi Contents Chapter 12. Tailoring and Health Promotion in the Workplace 375 Laura Linnan, ScD Jayne K. Jeffries, MA, MHS and Meridith Eastman, MSPH Introduction 375 Conceptual Framework—Individual and Organizational Levels  378 Summary of the Literature  380 Assessment Tools for Tailoring  396 Applications to Motivation and Skill Building  398 Unanswered Questions  400 Conclusion 401 References 403 SECTION iv CORE PROGRAM FOCI: BUILDING SKILLS AND CREATING OPPORTUNITIES Chapter 13. Health Assessment 407 David R. Anderson, PhD Erin L.D. Seaverson, MPH Paul E. Terry, PhD Introduction 407 Planning Worksite Health Assessment  409 Health Risk Assessment  414 Biomedical Screening  417 Key Applications of Health Assessment in Worksite Health Promotion 425 Conclusions 428 References 431 Chapter 14. Enhancing Fitness and Physical Activity 437 Mark Wilson, HSD, Jennifer L. Gay, PhD, David M. Dejoy, PhD and Heather M. Padilla, MS Introduction 437 Elements of Fitness  437 Fitness Prescription Dimensions  437 Prevalence of Physical Activity and Inactivity   440 Health and Financial Impact of Fitness Programs  446 Conceptual Foundation for Physical Activity Interventions  450 Skill Enhancement Strategies  451 Opportunity Enhancement Strategies  454 Emerging Trends and Unanswered Questions  456 Conclusions 457 References 459 Contents Chapter 15. Worksite Nutrition Programs 465 Anastasia Snelling, PhD, RN and Kristin Kirkpatrick, MS, RD Introduction 465 Nutrition and Health: Impact of Nutrition on Health  465 Guidelines for Healthy Eating Patterns  469 Theoretical Foundations for Worksite Nutrition Programs  473 Worksite Nutrition Programs  476 The Impact of Worksite Nutrition Programs  478 Summary 481 References 483 Chapter 16. Stress Management in the Workplace 491 Sokratis Dinos, CPsychol Richard Citrin, PhD and Kamaldeep Bhui, BSc, MBBS, MSc, MD, Dipl. Clin.Psychotherapy Introduction 491 Factors Associated with Stress  492 Theoretical Foundations for the Impact of Psychosocial Risk Factors at Work  492 Stress Management Interventions and their Impact on Health  493 Individual Stress Management Interventions: Skill Enhancement Strategies  495 Organizational Stress Management Interventions: Opportunity Enhancement Strategies  496 Discussion: Emerging Findings and Unanswered Questions  499 Conclusions 500 References 502 Chapter 17. Addressing Obesity at the Workplace Ed Framer, PhD Gordon Kaplan, PhD and Nico Pronk, PhD Introduction 507 The Problem  513 The Costs of Obesity  515 Activities 516 Outputs, Impact, and Outcomes  519 Conclusions 524 References 526 507 Chapter 18. Tobacco Prevention and Control in the Workplace Brian King, PhD, MPH Introduction 533 Impact of Tobacco Use on Health  533 533 xvii xviii Contents Prevalence of Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke Exposure  534 Theoretical Foundation for Workplace Tobacco Control Interventions 538 Impact of Workplace Tobacco Control Interventions  540 Skill Enhancement Strategies  542 Opportunity Enhancement Strategies  544 Developing and Implementing a Workplace Tobacco Control Intervention 546 Emerging Areas in Workplace Tobacco Control  548 Conclusion 550 References 553 Chapter 19. Health Decision Support: Health and Medical Decision Support and Chronic Condition Self-Management 561 Paul Terry, PhD and Stefan Gingerich, MS and Judith Hibbard, PhD Introduction 561 Evidence to Support the use of Decision Support  565 Advice for Worksite Health Practitioners  572 Condition-Specific Decision Support Programs  574 Conclusions 578 References 579 Chapter 20. Employee Assistance Programs: Serving at the Nexus of Employers and Employee Well-being 585 Beverly Younger, LCSW, PhD Introduction 585 Types and Prevalence of Employee Personal Concerns Addressed by EAPs  586 Theoretical Support for EAPs  594 EAP Models, Core Technology, and Empirical Support for Current Service Provision  595 EAPs and the AMSO Framework  600 Emerging Issues and Concerns  602 Summary 604 References 606 Contents SECTION V ENHANCING OPPORTUNITIES Chapter 21. Social Relationships: Harnessing their Potential to Promote Health Catherine Heaney, PhD, MPH Relevant Concepts and Processes  613 Social Relationships at the Workplace  620 Social Exchanges Specific to Health Behavior  623 Emerging Findings and Unanswered Questions  626 References 627 Chapter 22. Transforming Organizational Cultures to Support Good Health Judd Allen, PhD Introduction 633 Defining Culture  633 We Live in a Web of Cultures  634 Cultures are Complex Systems  634 Shared Values  635 Norms 635 Cultural Touch Points  635 Peer Support  636 Climate 636 Tools for Creating Wellness Cultures  637 Published Literature on Culture and Culture Change  639 References 645 613 633 SECTION Vi CENTRAL AND EMERGING TRENDS Chapter 23. Special Challenges and Opportunities for...
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