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Group Paper Edited - Alexis Smith Ryan Hoffman Ryan Hayes...

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Alexis Smith Ryan Hoffman Ryan Hayes Lun Li Black Scholars and the Emancipation Proclamation The Declaration of Independence, the Bill of Rights, the Treaty of Versailles. Although these documents had massive impacts on our nation’s government and the history, none have impacted our nation’s black population like the Emancipation Proclamation. Historians have their own view on the Proclamation. Some are positive whereas others are negative, but everyone can agree that the Emancipation Proclamation has made its mark in our school’s textbooks. Mark M. Krug (1915-2004) made a career at the University of Chicago in 1961 by becoming a history professor. He also became the director of the Weekend University in 1979 and then served as an educational director on the council for the Study of Mankind. Krug has written many works, for example: History and the Social Sciences: New Approaches to the Teaching of Social Studies , Rise of the American Nation, and The Melting of the Ethnics: Education of the Immigrants 1880-1914 , and Mrs. Hill’s Journal: Civil War Reminiscences . In Mark M. Krug’s Republican Party and Emancipation Proclamation , he writes about the negative assumptions made about the Emancipation Proclamation and then disproves them. The first theory is that “Lincoln was lukewarm and vacillating on the issue of slavery… then obviously the popular assertion that Lincoln issued the proclamation reluctantly and as a military necessity” [1]. Krug writes that this theory cannot be true because Lincoln believed the Declaration of Independence held true for all men, including Negroes. Also, Lincoln stood up
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for Negro rights when he was a young lawyer. As Krug states, “It took, in those early days of Illinois, great courage for a young lawyer and budding politician to fight for Negro freedom” [2]. Because of Lincoln belief for Negro rights, he would not have written the Emancipation Proclamation as a result of war. Some historians believe that Lincoln’s issue of the Emancipation Proclamation was due to unbearable pressure put on him by the radicals. Krug response to this implication is found in the number of Jacobin friends Lincoln had. His 37 th Congress was dominated by Jacobins who were in excellent cooperation with the president. He also had support from Radicals leaders like Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Charles Summer and Henry Wilson who was Chairman of the Senate Committee on Military Services and Militia. Thaddeus Stevens, who had privately caution the president about emancipating the slaves, gave full support on the measures needed for the prosecution of war. Krug writes, “This impressive legislative record, of which every President would be very proud, could not have been accomplished without the active cooperation of this band of so-called Jacobins” [3]. Another theory is the Emancipation Proclamation was forced by the coming of the
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This document was uploaded on 11/01/2011 for the course HST 111 at Miami University.

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Group Paper Edited - Alexis Smith Ryan Hoffman Ryan Hayes...

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