American_Studies_1st_half_of_Final - 1890s-1910s peak of...

This preview shows page 1 - 2 out of 4 pages.

1890s-1910s peak of the "second wave" of U.S. immigration Context: 1st wave (original settlers to the colonies / U.S.), WASP (white, Anglo-Saxon Protestants = democratic voting experience, “rugged individualism” = hard-working, Protestant Work Ethnic), mainly from England, going to mostly rural America (owning or working on farms and small businesses) Def: mainly from southern, central and eastern Europe, mainly not Protestant Christians (Roman Catholic & Eastern Orthodox Christians, plus some Jewish people), do not have democratic voting experience; and they will end up in industrial America (working at very difficult factory jobs or steel mills, mines) at low wages and work long hours under dangerous conditions Signif: helped America grow an industrial giant by early 1900s, but a high human cost; ended by the 1920s Taylorism vs. "speeding-up the gang" & pacemakers (1880s-1930s) Context: 2nd wave of immigrants (cheap labor) and rapidly industrializing U.S. – need for efficiency in business (making the product faster and with less cost). Before this, most products were hand-made, where each worker would learn to build the entire product = skilled workers, less easy to fire or replace (since they need extensive training) Def: Taylor broke down / divided jobs into assembly-line work – workers become unskilled, and can therefore be easy fired or replaced (since not much training needed). Speeding up the gang and pacemakers were ways for employers to manipulate workers into working faster; if workers were paid by the hour, if you work faster, you’re being paid less per unit! But the bosses earn more profit … Signif:

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture