LiqSolids - States of Matter; Liquids and Solids Chapter 11...

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States of Matter; Liquids and Solids Chapter 11
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11/01/11 Dr. Gökmen 2 Contents Comparison of gases, liquids, and solids Changes of state Phase transitions Phase diagrams Liquid state Properties of liquid; surface tension and viscosity Intermolecular forces Solid State Classification of solids by type of attraction Crystalline solids; crystal lattices and unit cell Structures of some crystalline solids Unit cell dimensions Determination of crystal structure by X-ray diffraction
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11/01/11 Dr. Gökmen 3 Comparison of Gases, Liquids and Solids Gases are compressible fluids. Molecules or atoms move in random directions in almost empty space. Liquids are incompressible fluids. The molecules in liquid make random motions but they are tightly packed. Solids are also imcompressible. Particles in solid exist in close contact, vibrate about fixed points.
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11/01/11 Dr. Gökmen 4 Changes of State Change of a substance from one state to another is called a change of state or phase transition. Phase transitions Melting Freezing Vaporization Sublimation
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11/01/11 Dr. Gökmen 5 Phase Transitions Phase Transition Name Examples Solid liquid Melting, fusion Melting of ice Solid gas Sublimation Sublimation of dry ice, freeze drying of coffee Liquid solid Freezing Freezing of water Liquid gas Vaporization Evaporation of water Gas liquid Condensation, liquefaction Formation of dew, liquefaction of CO 2 Gas solid Condensation, deposition Formation of frost and snow
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11/01/11 Dr. Gökmen 6 Vapor Pressure The vapor pressure of a liquid is the partial pressure of the vapor over the liquid, measured at equilibrium. h Mercury column Top of mercury before After water is added
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11/01/11 Dr. Gökmen 7 Equilibrium Vapor Pressure Initial rate of vaporization is higher than rate of condensation. When the rates of vaporization and condensation have become equal, the vapor pressure remains unchanged; liquid gets its equilibrium vapor pressure . Equilibrium Initial
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11/01/11 Dr. Gökmen 8 Kinetic Energy of Molecules and Evaporation Fraction of molecules having KE greater than minimum can escape from liquid. Fraction of molecules having enough KE to escape increases with temperature. Kinetic Energy N u m b e r o f l c s Lower temperature Higher temperature Minimum KE
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11/01/11 Dr. Gökmen 9 Rates of Vaporization and Condensation with Time Rate of reaction is proportional to concentration of substance; Rate of vaporization is constant. Rate of condensation is zero initially, but increases to rate of vaporization and equilibrium is reached. Rate of condensation Rate of vaporization Rates become equal Time Rate C dt dC
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11/01/11 Dr. Gökmen 10 Variation of Vapor Pressure with Temperature Vapor pressure of liquids increases rapidly(exponentially) with temperature. When the vapor pressure
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This note was uploaded on 11/01/2011 for the course CHEMICAL E CHEM-107 taught by Professor Bilinmiyor during the Spring '11 term at Middle East Technical University.

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LiqSolids - States of Matter; Liquids and Solids Chapter 11...

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