Quantum_2007 - Electronic Structure of Atoms 11/01/11...

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Unformatted text preview: Electronic Structure of Atoms 11/01/11 Chemistry 107, Electronic Structure of Atoms 2 Properties of wave Wavelength, , is the distance between any two adjacent point of a wave The frequency, , of a wave is the number of wavelengths that pass a fixed point in a unit time, usually second. Unit is Hz (1/s). =4 Hz =8 Hz , wavelength Amplitude time distance 11/01/11 Chemistry 107, Electronic Structure of Atoms 3 Wave property of light Light is electromagnetic wave. Electric and magnetic fields oscillate synchronously in planes perpendicular to each other. Speed of light in vacuum, c=3x10 8 m/s c= E B 11/01/11 Chemistry 107, Electronic Structure of Atoms 4 Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic spectrum covers the range of frequencies and wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. 11/01/11 Chemistry 107, Electronic Structure of Atoms 5 The Nature of Energy The wave nature of light does not explain how an object can glow when its temperature increases. Max Planck explained it by assuming that energy comes in packets called quanta . 11/01/11 Chemistry 107, Electronic Structure of Atoms 6 Particle and wave nature of light Atoms in a hot body oscillate with a definite frequency, , E = nh , n = 1, 2, 3, .. h= 6.63x10-34 J.s (Planks constant) Later, Albert Einstein postulated that light consists of quanta (photon) or particles of electromagnetic energy with energy E = h Photoelectric effect, Albert Einstein, 1905 750 C 1200 C h 3h 2h atom Max Plank (German Physicist) found a formula to explain the blackbody radiation from heated objects. 11/01/11 Chemistry 107, Electronic Structure of Atoms 7 Photoelectric effect Einstein used this assumption to explain the photoelectric effect. He concluded that energy is proportional to frequency: E = h where h is Plancks constant, 6.63 10 34 J-s. 11/01/11 Chemistry 107, Electronic Structure of Atoms 8 Line spectrum Line Spectrum contains set of single or large number of very closed lines Electric discharge of a gas creates plasma where energetic electrons excite atoms or molecules which emit light. 400 500 600 700 H 11/01/11 Chemistry 107, Electronic Structure of Atoms 9 Stability of electrons in classical theory Rutherfords atom model: Electron with negative charge rotates around positively charged nucleus According to electromagnetic theory electron moving in an electric fiels will radiate energy, and collapse....
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This note was uploaded on 11/01/2011 for the course CHEMICAL E CHEM-107 taught by Professor Bilinmiyor during the Spring '11 term at Middle East Technical University.

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Quantum_2007 - Electronic Structure of Atoms 11/01/11...

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