Solutions - Gökmen/Kıldır 1 Solutions Solutions/01/11...

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Unformatted text preview: 11/01/11 Gökmen/Kıldır 1 Solutions Solutions Chapter 12 11/01/11 Gökmen/Kıldır 2 Introduction Introduction Solutions are very important in chemistry, because most chemical reactions are run in solution. Also gases (C 2 H 2 ) can be stored safely in solution at high pressure. Questions to be answered: – How does the solubility of a substance change with temperature and pressure. – What determines how much the freezing point of a solution is lowered? 11/01/11 Gökmen/Kıldır 3 Topics of Discussion Topics of Discussion Types of Solutions Solubility and the Solution Process Effects of Temperature and Pressure on Solubility Concentration Units Vapor Pressure of a Solution Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression Osmosis Colligative Properties of Ionic Solutions Colloids 11/01/11 Gökmen/Kıldır 4 Types of Solutions Types of Solutions Solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, consisting of ions or molecules. – Solute is any substance dissolved in the solvent. – Solvent is the medium into which the solutes are dissolved. It is the component in greater amount Colloid is a mixture of comparatively large particles dispersed throughout another substance. Gaseous Solution: Gases or vapors can mix in all proportions to give a gaseous solution. – Miscible fluids can dissolve in each other in all proportions – Inmiscible fluids does not mix in each other but form layers Liquid Solution: Solute can be a gas, liquid or solid and solvent can be a liquid or solid. Solid Solution: Solute is liquid or solid and solvent is solid. 11/01/11 Gökmen/Kıldır 5 Types of Solutions Types of Solutions Solution State of Matter Description Air Gas Homogeneous Mixture of Gases Soda water Liquid Gas(CO 2 ) dissolved in water Ethanol in water Liquid Miscible liquids Brine Liquid Solid(NaCl) dissolved in water K-Na alloy Liquid Solution of two solids Dental-filling Solid Solution of liquid(Hg) in a solid Au-Ag alloy Solid Solution of two solids 11/01/11 Gökmen/Kıldır 6 Solubility Solubility Solubility of any solute in a given solvent is the concentration of the saturated solution. Saturated solution is in equilibrium with respect to a given dissolved substance Saturated soln. at 20 C – 36 g NaCl / 100 ml water – 50 g Na 2 S 2 O 3 / 100 ml water Unsaturated soln. at 20 C – 40 g Na 2 S 2 O 3 / 100 ml water Supersaturated soln at 20 C – 231 g Na 2 S 2 O 3 / 100 ml water 11/01/11 Gökmen/Kıldır 7 The Solubility Process The Solubility Process Two driving force are important for solution formation. – The tendency toward disorder – The tendency of a system to minimize its energy CCl 4 + C 6 H 14 : miscible Gases: miscible CH 3 OH + H 2 O: miscible – Energy change is negligible because of the similarity in intermolecular forces, but disorder being highly increased favors solution formation C 8 H 18 + H 2 O : immiscible – An increase in disorder favors...
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Solutions - Gökmen/Kıldır 1 Solutions Solutions/01/11...

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