Equilibrium - Chemical Equilibrium General Concepts Content...

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Chemical Equilibrium General Concepts
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11/01/11 CHEM 102, Equilibrium 2 Content Dynamic equilibrium in chemical systems Reaction reversibility The equilibrium law for a reaction Equilibrium laws for gaseous reactions Significance of magnitude of K Equilibrium constants from thermodynamic data Heterogeneous equilibria Le Chatelier’s principle and chemical equilibria Equilibrium calculations
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11/01/11 CHEM 102, Equilibrium 3 Dynamic equilibrium HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + H 2 O H 3 O + (aq) + C 2 H 3 O 2 - (aq) time Concentration remain constant - equilibrium is established concentration reactants products
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11/01/11 CHEM 102, Equilibrium 4 H 2 O(g) + CO(g) H 2 (g) + CO 2 (g) [CO 2 ] or [H 2 ] [CO] or [H 2 O] time concentration equilibrium
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11/01/11 CHEM 102, Equilibrium 5 Reaction reversibility N 2 O 4 (g) 2NO 2 (g) initial initial equilibrium 0.035 mol N 2 O 4 0.0292 mol N 2 O 4 0.0116 mol NO 2 0.070 mol NO 2
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11/01/11 CHEM 102, Equilibrium 6 Reaction rates and equilibrium The reaction rates in forward and reverse directions do not change the same way H 2 O(g) + CO(g) H 2 (g) + CO 2 (g) Equilibrium forward rate=reverse rate time Reaction rates
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11/01/11 CHEM 102, Equilibrium 7 Equilibrium: A Kinetics Argument N 2 O 4 (g) 2NO 2 (g) Rate forward = k f [N 2 O 4 ] Rate reverse = k r [NO 2 ] 2 At equilibrium the rate in forward and reverse direction become equal; k f [N 2 O 4 ] = k r [NO 2 ] 2 [ ] [ ] 4 2 2 2 r f c O N NO k k K = =
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11/01/11 CHEM 102, Equilibrium 8 H 2 + I 2 2HI 1 mol H 2 1 mol I 2 0 mol HI 0.222 mol H 2 0.222 mol I 2 1.56 mol HI 0.442 mol H 2 0.442 mol I 2 3.11 mol HI 49.5 49.4 0 mol H 2 0 mol I 2 4 mol HI ] ][I [H [HI] 2 2 2
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11/01/11 CHEM 102, Equilibrium 9 Mass action expression and reaction quotient aA + bB cC + dD Mass Action Expression Q : reaction quotient (value of mass action expression) When system reaches equilibrium, Q = K c b a d c B A D C Q ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ =
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11/01/11 CHEM 102, Equilibrium 10 Equilibrium law aA + bB cC + dD The coefficients in the balanced equation are the same as the exponents in the mass action expression. b a d c c B A D C K ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ =
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11/01/11 CHEM 102, Equilibrium 11 Example Write the equilibrium expression for the following reaction: 4NH 3 (g) + 7O 2 (g) 4NO 2 (g) + 6H 2 O(g) Solution: Applying the laws of mass action; 7 2 4 3 6 2 4 2 ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ O NH O H NO K =
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CHEM 102, Equilibrium 12 2 2 2 ' ] [ ] ][ [ 1 HI I H K K c c = = ] ][ [ ] [ 2
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This note was uploaded on 11/01/2011 for the course CHEMICAL E CHEM-107 taught by Professor Bilinmiyor during the Spring '11 term at Middle East Technical University.

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Equilibrium - Chemical Equilibrium General Concepts Content...

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