Nuclear - Nuclear Chemistry Contents Conservation of...

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Nuclear Chemistry
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Chem 107, Nuclear Chemistry 2 11/01/11 18:06 Contents Conservation of Mass-Energy Nuclear Binding Energy Band of Stability Transmutation Detecting and Measuring Radiation Applications of Radioactivity Nuclear Fusion Nuclear Fission
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Chem 107, Nuclear Chemistry 3 11/01/11 18:06 Conservation of Mass and Energy Atomic nucleus is very stable, it is not effected at all by any electron events. There are some naturally radioactive elements which transforms other stable element. Nuclear reactions are much more energetic compared to atomic and molecular reactions. Here, nucleons are rearranged instead of electrons.
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Chem 107, Nuclear Chemistry 4 11/01/11 18:06 Conservation of Mass and Energy In nuclear reactions mass-energy is conserved. Mass and energy are convertible. Einstein’s relativity theory redefines the mass: If the particle is at rest (v=0), then m=m 0 (m 0 is rest mass). “c” is the speed of light which is the upper limit of speed. If the particles speed approaches c, its mass becomes infinitely large. Law of Conservation of Mass-Energy The sum of all energy and of all mass (total energy) is a constant. 2 0 ) / ( 1 c v m m - =
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Chem 107, Nuclear Chemistry 5 11/01/11 18:06 Einstein Equation Mass is converted into energy by Einstein equation; E = m 0 c 2 The energy associated with a chemical reaction is proportional to mass exchanged: CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O H = -890 kJ 890x10 3 (kg.m 2 .s -2 )= m 0 (3x10 8 m.s -1 ) 2 m 0 = 8.98x10 -9 g (total mass of reactants=80 g; 16 g CH 4 , 64 g O 2 )
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Chem 107, Nuclear Chemistry 6 11/01/11 18:06 Nuclear Binding Energy The mass of atomic nucleus of an element is always less than the sum of masses of all nucleons, neutrons and protons. This energy difference is called the binding energy which is used to hold nucleons together as the nucleus. He nucleus p n p n e n r g y He 2n+2p BE
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Chem 107, Nuclear Chemistry 7 11/01/11 18:06 Binding Energy per Nucleon as a Function of Mass Number 7,4 7,6 7,8 8 8,2 8,4 8,6 8,8 0 50 100 150 200 250 Aromic Mass, A BE/u
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Chem 107, Nuclear Chemistry 8 11/01/11 18:06 Example (BE of 4 He) What is the binding energy of He? (1amu=1.66x10 -27 kg) Helium has 2 protons and 2 neutrons. BE = 4.031875 - 2(1.007373+1.008665) = 0.030369u = 0.030369u (1.66x10 -27 kg/u) (3x10 8 m.s -1 ) 2 = 4.54x10 -12 J Energy needed to disintegrate one mole of He: 4.54x10 -12 J (6.02x10 23 at/mole) = 2.73x10 12 J Particle Mass (amu) Proton 1.007273 u Neutron 1.008665 u Helium 4.031875 u
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Chem 107, Nuclear Chemistry 9 11/01/11 18:06 Electron Volt as an Energy Unit 1 eV = 1.6x10 -19 J 1 keV = 10 3 eV 1 MeV = 10 6 eV 1 GeV = 10 9 eV 1V KE=1eV e -
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10 11/01/11 18:06 BE/u and Nuclear Stability Binding Energy/Nucleon (BE/u) is a measure of stability of nucleus. 1 u = 931.5 MeV
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Nuclear - Nuclear Chemistry Contents Conservation of...

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