HIST 1378 Lecture 8 The Progressive Era(1).ppt - Lecture 8...

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Lecture 8: The Progressive Era HIS 1378: The United States Since 1877 University of Houston Winter 2020 2/17/20
Why do we call the period from the 1890s to the 1910s the Progressive Era? What did Progressive Era reformers hope to accomplish? Did they succeed? How did the Progressive Era change Americans’ relationship with government? Key Questions
What was “Progressivism? (1890s-1910s) Primarily middle class (unlike labor movement) Primarily urban (unlike Populist movement) Progressive causes: political reform, anti-trust, women’s suffrage, food safety, workplace safety, child labor laws, public education, temperance, conservation, sanitation and public health Defining Terms
Mayors > city councils > ward bosses > precinct captains Case study: Tammany Hall in New York City Political Machines 1899 cartoon from Puck magazine showing New York City politics revolving around boss Richard Croker Richard “Boss” Croker (1843-1922)
Muckrakers Investigative journalists and authors who published exposés of greed, corruption, and injustice Prominent muckrakers: Ida Tarbell, Ida B. Wells, Lincoln Steffens, Helen Campbell, Jacob Riis, Upton Sinclair
The greatest single hold of "the interests" is the fact that they are the "campaign contributors" − the men who supply the money for "keeping the party together," and for "getting out the vote." Did you ever think where the millions for watchers, spellbinders, halls, processions, posters, pamphlets, that are spent in national, state and local campaigns come from? Who pays the big election expenses of your congressman, of the men you send to the legislature to elect senators? Do you imagine those who foot those huge bills are fools? […] The bulk of the money for the “political trust” comes from “the interests.” David Graham Philips, “The Treason of the Senate,” Cosmopolitan , March 1906 David Graham Philips (1867-1911)
Food Safety Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle (1906) Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) Food and Drug Administration (1906) Chicago slaughterhouse c. 1900 Poster for a film adaptation of The Jungle
The bacteriological revolution (1850s-1880s) Municipal waste disposal, introduction of flush toilets, sewage treatment (1880s-1920s) Public Health Reform Edgar M. Crookshank, Manual of Bacteriology (1887) Trash-strewn street in New York City, 1850s

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