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Unformatted text preview: History 121 2 nd Exam Notes History 121 10/6/08 Lecutre #?-Roman Republic 287-27- effects of conquests on Republic- Senate runs Provinces poorly- Italy seen as a province o Hannibal came with army (plus elephants) occupied northern Italy Farmers lost economically during invasion, couldn’t keep farms, had to sell them to the rich (senate members) • Polarization of economy (more land to senate less for lower class)- Poor that lost land came to cities o Huge urban crowding-The Late Republic (133-44)- Factions and Rebellions o Factional Politics- banding together for self gain o The Gracchi Brothers 12 sons, father died shortly after youngest born Mother allowed all the live among the best minds All trained to serve the state Tiberius Gracchus (162-133) • Tribune (highest plebian office) • Tried to solve burden of the poor • Propose division of rich’s land and distribute to poor o Intended to get people off of welfare o killed trying to propose his bill along with 300 followers in “riot” o blamed on the “conservatives” in government ten years later, Gaius Gracchus (brother) becomes tribune • reintroduces legislation o adds that poor should be given land in provinces not around Rome up for re-election, treated as demi-god • wants to give Italian citizens Roman citizenship • “riot” ensues, afterward he is dead with 3000 followers- story demonstrates huge economic division without problem solving • factional politics and violence rather than solution • manipulation of the electorate, uneducated masses cheering o Populares vs. Optimates Everyone runs as populares, “for the people” etc. Once elected, joins platform of optimates, keep status quo o Sulla the Compromiser Runs as a populares, stays one as well Gave citizenship to some Italians Consul 88-84 o Rebellions from many areas Poor (Populares) Provinces • Against bad government Slaves rebellion • Many slaves thanks to conquests • Spartacus 73-71 o Former gladiator, lead a rebellion for 2 years in Rome/Italy o 6,000 slaves crucified (traitor’s death) 63 Catiline conspiracy • Senator, wanted to cancel everyone’s debts o Politicking, didn’t intend to carry it out • Threatened violence if he lost • He lost, conspired with friends to take over Rome with private troops • Cicero gave big speech calling out Catiline o Catiline arrested and executed o Cicero in trouble for executing them, senators are supposed to be allowed to commit suicide 59 First Triumverate • Crassus, Pompey, and Caesar o Crassus a big general o Pompey hero fighting pirates o Gaius Julius Caesar Rose to power holding prestigious offices without power • Elected head priest, ran ceremonies but no power • Appointed governor of least populous state “way far out Spain” • Sponsored games (gladiators, etc.), became celebrity • Borrows large amounts of money from Crassus for events in return for political support...
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- Fall '05