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Unformatted text preview: History 121 2 nd Exam Notes History 121 10/6/08 Lecutre #?-Roman Republic 287-27- effects of conquests on Republic- Senate runs Provinces poorly- Italy seen as a province o Hannibal came with army (plus elephants) occupied northern Italy Farmers lost economically during invasion, couldnt keep farms, had to sell them to the rich (senate members) Polarization of economy (more land to senate less for lower class)- Poor that lost land came to cities o Huge urban crowding-The Late Republic (133-44)- Factions and Rebellions o Factional Politics- banding together for self gain o The Gracchi Brothers 12 sons, father died shortly after youngest born Mother allowed all the live among the best minds All trained to serve the state Tiberius Gracchus (162-133) Tribune (highest plebian office) Tried to solve burden of the poor Propose division of richs land and distribute to poor o Intended to get people off of welfare o killed trying to propose his bill along with 300 followers in riot o blamed on the conservatives in government ten years later, Gaius Gracchus (brother) becomes tribune reintroduces legislation o adds that poor should be given land in provinces not around Rome up for re-election, treated as demi-god wants to give Italian citizens Roman citizenship riot ensues, afterward he is dead with 3000 followers- story demonstrates huge economic division without problem solving factional politics and violence rather than solution manipulation of the electorate, uneducated masses cheering o Populares vs. Optimates Everyone runs as populares, for the people etc. Once elected, joins platform of optimates, keep status quo o Sulla the Compromiser Runs as a populares, stays one as well Gave citizenship to some Italians Consul 88-84 o Rebellions from many areas Poor (Populares) Provinces Against bad government Slaves rebellion Many slaves thanks to conquests Spartacus 73-71 o Former gladiator, lead a rebellion for 2 years in Rome/Italy o 6,000 slaves crucified (traitors death) 63 Catiline conspiracy Senator, wanted to cancel everyones debts o Politicking, didnt intend to carry it out Threatened violence if he lost He lost, conspired with friends to take over Rome with private troops Cicero gave big speech calling out Catiline o Catiline arrested and executed o Cicero in trouble for executing them, senators are supposed to be allowed to commit suicide 59 First Triumverate Crassus, Pompey, and Caesar o Crassus a big general o Pompey hero fighting pirates o Gaius Julius Caesar Rose to power holding prestigious offices without power Elected head priest, ran ceremonies but no power Appointed governor of least populous state way far out Spain Sponsored games (gladiators, etc.), became celebrity Borrows large amounts of money from Crassus for events in return for political support...
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This document was uploaded on 11/02/2011 for the course HST 121 at Miami University.
- Fall '05