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Unformatted text preview: Nervous System Structures within central and peripheral nervous system: 1. Neurons 2. neurological cells Somatic nervous system- nerves that carry information to and from the CNS, resulting in sensations and voluntary movement Autonomic nervous system- governs the involuntary, subconscious activities Sympathetic nervous system- in charge of stressful or emergency conditions Parasympathetic nervous system- adjusts bodily function so energy is conserved during non-stressful times 4 ways central nervous system is protected: 1. bony cases (skull and vertebral column) 2. membranes (meninges) 3. fluid cushion (cerebrospinal fluid) 4. blood-brain barrier cerebral cortex- the thin outer layer of each hemisphere in the brain • Grey matter is located in the cerebral cortex • White matter is located beneath the cortex Corpus callosum- allows left and right cerebral hemispheres to communicate with one another 4 lobes of cerebrum 1. frontal 2. parietal 3. temporal 4. occipital primary motor area- forms band in cortex • controls voluntary movement premotor cortex- located just in front of motor cortex • coordinates learned motor skills (repetitive or patterned; playing piano) thalamus • processes all sensory info • relays info to appropriate higher brain centers hypothalamus • controls heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, body temp, food intake • is a center for emotions • serves as “master biological clock” cerebellum • coordinates sensory-motor voluntary movement • stores memory of learned patterns medulla oblongata • contains autonomic centers for heart rate and digestive activities • relays sensory activities to thalamus pons • a bridge between higher and lower brain centers Limbic system- help to produce emotions and memory Reticular activating system (RAS)- functions as a net or filter for sensory input 2 functions of spinal cord 1. transmit messages to and from the brain 2. serve as a reflex center sensory neuron- conduct information toward the brain and spinal cord---extend from sensory receptors motor neuron- neurons carry information away from brain and spinal cord to an effector interneuron- located between sensory and motor neuron---decide on the appropriate response Myelin sheath • a Schwann cell wraps around an axon • increases rate of conduction of nerve impulse; acts as insulation...
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- Fall '08