mgt291finalstudyguide - Organization Behavior Organization...

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Organization Behavior Organization Behavior: A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and organization system (Independent Variables) have on behavior within organizations (Dependent Variables), for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness Goals: B. To increase employees’ work life quality. Past Methodology: -Scientific Management: Initially believed money was the only way to please people -Human Relation Movement: Hawthorne Studies: Found that work performance is influenced by individual factors and social interaction Theory X is usually negative and pessimistic; Theory Y is a modern and positive set of assumptions about people Nature of work, nature of human being, ways to manage New Methodology: -The Quality Movement: training, continuous improvement, customer satisfaction -E-Business: Running entire business via internet -The Age of Human and Social Capital Human capital: The productive potential of one’s knowledge and action. Social capital: The productive potential of strong, trusting, and cooperative relationships. -Positive Organizational Behavior: The study and improvement of employee’s positive attributes and capabilities Perception Perception: Process of interpreting one’s environment; due to perception of reality and not reality itself Pygmalion Effect: Someone’s positive expectations of another person result in that individual’s positive behaviors consistent with the expectation. Golem Effect: Someone’s negative expectations of another person result in that individual’s negative behaviors consistent with the expectation. Rosenthal’s Four-Factor Theory for Pygmalion: -Climate: Create the socioemotional (positive) mood or spirit, often by communicating nonverbally. -Feedback: Provide both affective information and cognitive information. -Input: Teach more to employees of whom they expect more. -Output: Encourage greater responsiveness from employees of whom they expect more through their verbal and nonverbal behaviors. Perceptual and Attribution Bias: Fundamental Attribution Error: The tendency to attribute another person’s behavior to his or her personal characteristics rather than situational factors. Self-Serving Bias: The tendency to take personal responsibility for own success while putting the blame for own failures on situational factors. Halo/Horn Effect: tendency to form an overall impression about a person solely on the basis of one attribute (positive/negative), and then use that impression to bias
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ratings (positive / negative) on other aspects of that person. Contrast Effects:
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This document was uploaded on 11/02/2011 for the course MGT 291 at Miami University.

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mgt291finalstudyguide - Organization Behavior Organization...

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