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Review Exam#1 - Review exam#1 Chapter 1 the sociological...

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Review exam#1 Chapter 1 the sociological perspective 1. What is sociology? What are the 3 goals of sociology? Sociology – the study of social life, social change, and social causes and consequences of human behavior Goals of sociology : a. Explain why something happens a.i. Example: Why does homelessness occur? b. Make generalizations b.i. Example: Homelessness may occur due to economic instability, a natural disaster, military wars, etc. c. Analyze patterns to predict (and resolve) the future c.i. Example: If homelessness continues, property value may decline, crime rate may increase, etc. Ultimately, let’s “fix” this problem! 2. What is a theory? Why do we need theories? Social theory -It’s a statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work; an explanation of how two or more facts are related to one another. A theory provides a conceptual framework for interpreting facts. 3. What did sociologist C. Wright Mills mean by sociological imagination (or perspective)? Know how to apply the sociological imagination to everyday human behavior (refer to “Overall Themes”). Sociological imagination – the ability to see the relationship between the larger part of society and individual troubles 4. Define the 3 major sociological theories (symbolic interactionism, functionalism, and conflict theory). Know how to apply these theories to everyday human behavior (refer to “Overall Themes”). 1) Symbolic interactionism —exam how people use symbols to develop and share their views of the world. Micro-level analysis Focus is on interpretation of symbols and interactions Main questions: What are the symbols or representations of X? How would you (or society) react to these symbols? Application of theory: Example #1: Marriage – Wedding bands, wedding dress, and church bells symbolize the institution of marriage, thus you treat these objects differently Example #2: Education – College campus, textbooks, and classrooms symbolize higher education, thus you treat these things differently
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2) Functionalists —they stress that a social system is made up of interrelated parts. When working properly, each part fulfills a function that contributes to the system’s stability. Macro-level analysis è Positive approach Focus is on how different parts of society function to fulfill order and stability Main questions: What are the benefits of X and who benefits from X? Application of theory: Example #1: Education – Schools exist to promote stability by carrying out MANY functions è what are these functions? 2) 3) Conflict theorists —stress that society is composed of competing groups that struggle for scarce resources. Macro-level analysis è Negative approach Focus is on how competing groups struggle for scarce resources Main questions: Who is competing against whom?
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